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the reader is referred to separate articles, (a) The Knights Templars, founded in 1118. St. Bernard of Clairvaux drew up their rule, and they always regarded the Cistercians as their brethren. For this reason they adopted a white dress, to which they added a red cross. The order was suppressed in 1312. In Spain there were: (b) The Knights of Calatrava founded in 1158 to assist in protecting Spain against the Moorish invasions. The Knights of Calatrava owed their origin to the abbot and monks of the Cistercian monastery of Fitero. The general chap- ter of Citeaux drew up a rule of life and exercised a general supervision over them. The black hood .anil short scapular which they wore denoted their connexion with Citeaux. The order possessed iiity-six commanderies, chietiy in Andalusia. The Nuns of Calatrava were established c. 1219. They were cloistered, observing the rule of the Cistercian nuns and wearing a similar habit, but they were under the jurisdiction of the (irand Master of the knights, (c) Knights of Alcdntara, or of San Juhan del Pereyro, in Castille, founded about the same time and for the same purpose as the Knights of Calatrava. They adopted a mitigated form of St. Benedict's Rule, to which certain observances borrowed from Calatrava were added. They also used the black hood and abbreviated scapular. It was at one time proposed to unite this order with that of Calatrava, but the scheme failed of execution. They possessed thirty-seven commanderies. (d) Knights of Montesa, foimded 1316, an offshoot from Calatrava, instituted by ten knights of that order who placed themselves under the abbot of Citeaux instead of their own Grand Master, (e) Knights of St. George of Alfama, founded in 1201; united to the Order of Montesa in 1399.

In Portugal there were three orders, also founded for purposes of defence against the Moors: — (f) The Knights of Aviz, founded 1147; they observed the Benedictine Rule, under the direction of the abbots of Citeaux and Clairvaux. and had forty command- eries. (g) The Knights of St. Michael's Wing, founded 1167; the name was taken in honour of the archangel whose visible assistance secured a victory against the Moors for King Alphonso I of Portugal. The rule was drawn up by the Cistercian Abbot of Alcobaza. They were never very numerous, and the order did not long survive the king in whose reign it was founded, (h) The Order of Clirist, reared upon the ruins of the Templars about 1317; it became very nvnnerous and wealthy. It adopted the Rule of St. Benedict and the constitutions of Citeaux, and possessed 450 commanderies. In 1550 the office of grand master of this order, as well as that of Aviz, was united to the crown, (i) The Monks of the Or- der of Christ. In 1,567 a stricter life was instituted in the convent of Thomar, the principal house of the Order of Christ, under this title, where the full monastic life was observed, with a habit and vows similar to those of the Cistercians, though the monks were under the jurisdiction of the grand master of the Knights. This order now exists as one of the noble orders of knighthood, similar to those of the Garter, Bath, etc.. in England. In Savoy there were the two orders: (k) the Knights of St. Maurice, and (1) those of St. Lazarus, which were united in 1572. Tliey observed the Cistercian rule and the object of their existence was the defence of the Catholic Faith against the inroads of the Protestant Reformation. They had many commanderies and their two principal houses were at Turin and Nice. In Switzerland also the Abbots of St. Gall at one time supported (m) the military Order of the Bear, which Frederick II had instituted in 1213.

(2) Hospitallers. — The Order of the Brothers Hospitallers of Burgos originated in a hospital attached to a convent of Cistercian nuns in that

town. There were a dozen Cistercian lay brothers who assisted the nuns in the care of the hospital, and these, in 1474, formed themselves into a new order intended to be independent of Citeaux. They met with much opposition, and, irregularities having crept in, they were reformed in 1587 and placed under the abbess of the convent.

(3) Oblates.— The Oblates of St. Frances of Rome, called also CoUatines, were a congregation of pious women, founded in 1425 and approved as an order in 1433. They first observed the rule of the Fran- ciscan Tertiaries, but this was soon changed for that of St. Benedict. The order consisted chiefly of noble Roman ladies, who hved a semi-religious life and devoted themselves to works of piety and charity. They made no solemn vows, neither were they strictly enclosed, nor forbidden to enjoy the use of their possessions. They were at first under the direction of the Olivetan Benedictines, but after the death of their foundress, in 1440, they became independent.

(4) Orders of Canonesses. — Information is but scanty concerning the chapters of noble canonesses, which were fairly numerous in Lorraine, Flanders, and Germany in medieval times. It seems certain, however, that many of them were originally com- munities of Benedictine nuns, which, for one reason or another, renounced their solemn vows and assumed the state of canonesses, whilst still observing some form of the Benedictine Rule. The membership of almost all these chapters was restricted to women of noble, and in some cases of royal, descent. In many also, whilst the canonesses were merely seculars, that is, not under vows of religion, and therefore free to leave and marry, the abbesses retained the character and state of religious superiors, and as such were solemnly professed as Benedictine nims. The following list of houses is taken from Mabillon and H61yot, but all had ceased to exist by the end of the eighteenth century: — In Lorraine: Remiremont; foimded 620; members became canonesses in 1515; Epinal, 983; Pouzay, Bouxieres-aux-Dames, and Metz, of the eleventh or twelfth century. In Ger- many: Cologne, 689; Homburg and Strasburg, of the seventh century; Lindau, Buchau, and Andlau of the eighth century; Obermiinster, Niedermiinster, and Essen of the ninth century. In Flanders: Nivelles, Mons, Andenne, Maubeuge, and Belisie of the seventh century; and Denain, 764. The members of the following houses in Germany having renounced their solemn vows and become canonesses in tiie sixteenth century, abandoned also the Catholic Faith and accepted the Protestant re- ligion: Gandersheim, Herford, Quedhnburg, Gernrode.

The Benedictine Order in General. — Montalembert, Monks of the West (London, 1896), Eng. tr., new ed., with preface by Gascjuet; Newman, Mission of *S7. Benedict and Benedictine Schools, in Historical Sketches (London, 187.3); Gasqhet, Sketch of the Life and Mission of St. Benedict (Lon- don, 1895); Maitland, The Dark Ages (London, 1845); Mabil- lon, Annales O. S. B. (Paris, 1703-39); Id., Acta SS. O. S. B. (Venice, 1733); Yepez, Chronicon generate Ord. S. P. N. Benedicti ((Cologne, 1G03); Helyot, Histoire des ordres religieux (Paris, 1792); Id., Diet, des ordres religieux (Paris, 1860); MisGE, Commentaire sur la rigte de S. Benoit (Paris, l{i87); Calmet, Commentaire (Paris, 1734); Menard, Codex regularum (Paris, 1638); Besse, Le moine benedictin (Ligug^, 1898); BraunmClleb in Kirchenlex., s. v.; Herzog, Realencyclopadie (Leipzig, 1897), s. v.; Heimbucher, Die Orden und Kongre- gationen der katholischen Kirche (Paderborn, 1896). I; Ziegel- BAUER, Hisl. lit. O. S. B. (.\ugsburg, 1754); .4;6iim Benedic- tinum (St. Vincent'.'!, Pennsylvania, 1880; Rome, 1905); Tanner, Nolitia Monastica (London, 1744); Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum, with Stevens's continuation (London, 1817-30); Gasquet, Henry \ III and the English Monasteries (London, 1899); Id., The Eve of the Reformation (London. 1890); Gairdner, Prefaces to Calendars of State Papers of Henry VUI; Taunton, English Black Monks of St. Benedict (London, 1897); Duddf.n. Gregory the Great (London, 1905). I; Eckenstein, Woman under Motiasticism (Cambridge, 1896); Hope. St. Boniface and the Conversion of Germany (London, 1872); Ueyner, .ipostolatus Benedictinorum in Angli/i (Douat. 1626); Hind, Benedicliru-s in Oxford m Ampleforth Journal, \'I 1901.