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in progress, and was especially solicitous for a better education of the clergy. He courageously resisted the heretical tendencies of many humanists and, though friendly disposed towards the better ones, scatliingly rebuked others. To guard against impure literature he established in his diocese, on 4 January, 1486, a censorship of the press, which was the first in historj'. Berthold had long been dissatisfied with the many pecuniary demands of Rome upon Germany and the improprieties that often accompanied the preaching of indulgences, and shortly before liis death he respectfully sub- mitted these grievances of the German nation to Pope Pius III, who had just succeeded Alexander VI. He is buried in the Cathedral of Mainz, where a magnificent monument perpetuates his memory.

Weckerle, De Bertholdi H ennebergensis archiep. Mog. studiis politicis (Munster, 1868); Jansen, Gesckichle des detitsclien Volkea Beit dem Ausgang des Mitlelalters (Freiburg im Breisgau. 1893) I, passim (tr., St. Louis); Max Jansen, Kaiser Maximilian I (Munich, 1905), 65 sq.

Michael Ott.

Berthold of Ratisbon, a Franciscan of the monastery of tluit city and the most powerful preacher of repentance in the thirteenth century, b. about 1210; d. at Ratisbon, 14 December, 1272. He was probably a member of a well-to-do middle class family of Ratisbon named Sachs. The ex- cellence of his literary training is proved by his sermons which show more than common acquaint- ance with the ancient classics. From his knowledge of the usages of secular life, it may be inferred that he was a man of mature age before he entered the monastery. The first fixed date in Berthold 's life is 1246, when the papal legate appointed him and David of Augsburg inspectors of the convent of Niedermunster, a proof of the high regard in which Berthold was then held. One of his contemporaries, the Abbot of Niederaltaich, who is a reliable his- torian, speaks in 12.50 of the great reputation that Berthold had in Bavaria as a preacher. Four years later the missionary trips of this preacher extended as far as the valley of the Rhine, Alsace, and Switzer- land. During the next ten years Berthold's apos- tolic labours led him eastward into Austria, Mo- ravia, Bohemia, and Silesia. In 1263 Pope Urban IV appointed him to preach the Crusade and Albert the Great was designated as his assistant.

When speaking to Slavonic audiences Berthold naturally employed an interpreter, just as St. Bernard, in his day, made use of an interpreter in Germany. Notwithstanding any difficulties that might arise as to speech, wherever he went Berthold exerted an extraordinary power of attraction over liis hearers so that the churches were not able to hold the great crowds of plain people who came from all quarters to his services, and he was often obliged to preach in the open air. When this was the case, a pulpit was generally arranged under the spreading brandies of a linden tree. Long after his day "Berthold's linden" was to be seen at Glatz. About 1270 he seems to have returned to Ratisbon where he re- mained the rest of his life. The Franci.scan mar- tyrology includes his name among the blessed of the order, and his remains form the most precious relic among the treasures of the cathedral at Ratisbon. The poets and clironiclers of his time made frequent reference to Bertliold. He was called "sweet Brother Berthold", "the beloved of God and man", "a second Elias", "the teaclier of the nations"; all of these expressions are proofs of the high esteem in which liis activities were held. The secret of the preacher's success lay partly in the saintliness of his life and iiartly in his power to make use of the language of lunnble life. He became the great master, it may be .said, the classic of homely speech, and this rank has been maintained by his sermons to the present day. One of his two popular dis-

courses on the Last Judgment became a favourite book of the people under the title "The Valley of Josaphat.

There is no doubt that Brother Berthold preached in German. For a long time, however, scholars disagreed as to how his sermons liad been preserved. It is now generally accepted that the sermons were often written down afterwards in Latin, frequently with marginal comments in German; these reports of the sermons, as they may be called, partly German, partly Latin, or at times in the language in which they were delivered, are what have been handed down to posterity. The discourses thus preserved are of the greatest importance for the history of the development of the literature of homiletics; they are of equal value as rich sources for determining the condition of education and culture in the thirteenth century. It is difficult, therefore, to understand how this greatest of German preachers to the poor could have been forgotten for centuries. It was not until some of Brother Berthold's sermons were publishecl in 1824 that attention was called to the eloquent Franciscan. Since this date, the enthusiasm for Ber- thold has growTi steadily so that he has become a favourite, both of Germanic scholars and of the historians of the development of German civilization. He is also regarded as the great pattern of homely pulpit eloquence.

Kling. Bertholda, des Franziskaners. deuisehe Predigten (Berlin, 1824); Pfeiffer dnd Strobl, Berthold von Regens- burg (Vienna, 1862, 1880); Gobel, Die Missionspredigten des Fran:dskaners Berthold von Regensburg, in jetziger Schriftsprache (Ratisbon, 1873); Hotzl, Beali Fr. Bertholdi a Ratisbona sermones ad religiosos (Munich. 1882); Unkel, Berthold von Regensburg (Cologne, 1882); Stromberger, Berthold von Regensburg (Giiterslob, 1877); Michael, Gesch. des deutschen Volkes vom 13. Jahrh. bis zum Ausgange des M. A. (Freii^urg im Br., 1897), II, III, 1-44-180.


Berthold of Reichenau, a Benedictine monk and chronicler of the celebrated Abbey of Reichenau on the Lake of Constance; d. probably in 10S8. He was a disciple and friend of the learned Hermannus Contractus. When Hermann saw death approaching, he entrusted to Berthold all the wax tablets that contained the writings which he had not yet com- mitted to parchment and commissioned Berthold to peruse them and, after careful revision, to copy them on parchment. Berthold was also exhorted by his dying master to continue the famous world-chronicle, begun by Hermann, which in chronological order re- lated the liistory of the world from the birth of Christ to 1054, the year in which Hermann died. To the continuation of this chronicle and to a biography of his master and friend, Hermannus Contractus, is due whatever fame is attached to the name of Berthold.

The chronicle, as far as it was written by Berthold, comprises a concise and impartial history of the troublesome times immediately preceding the acces- sion of Gregory VII and probably also of the early reign of this great pontiff. It is reprinted to the year 1080, with an introduction by Pertz, in "Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script." V, 264-326, and in P. L.. CXLVII, 314-442. Pertz contends that Berthold did not begin the continuation of Hermann's chronicle until 1076, and that in the execution of it he made use of another chronicle, written by Bernold who was also a monk of Reichenau; but it has been proved almost beyond doubt by GiescbicchI and Schulzcn that Berthold was the first to conlinuc Hermann's chronicle and that Bernold's chronicle is a continua- tion of Berthold's. It is, however, still undecided as to what year Berthold's chronicle extends. Usser- mann and Schulzcn hold that it extends only to the year 1066, while Pertz, Giesebrecht, and others believe that Berthold wrote the chronicle at least to the middle of the year 1080, where the manuscript suddenly ceases in the middle of a sentence.

The original text of Berthold is no longer in ex-