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cus, and in 649 Bishop Stephen attended the Roman council concerning the MonotheHtes. This city had much to suffer from the Lombards, and in 665 or 670, while the people were assembled in the cathedral for the ceremonies of Holy Saturday, it was suddenly attacked by King Grimoald, who pillaged it and butchered numbers of the people and clergy (Paul Diac, Hist. Lang., V. x). By the famoiis donation of Pepin, Forlimpopoh with the other cities of the exarchate and the Pentapolis was made a part of the patrimony of St. Peter. In 1073 during the episco- pate of Pietro, St. Peter Damian went to Forlimpopoli to reform ecclesiastical discipline, and on this occa- sion is thought to have delivered a sermon on St. RufiUus, which Vecchiazzani, an historian of this city, claims to have discovered at Rimini in the Library of St. Jerome. But this is very doubtful. Among "the successive bishops, Ubertello (1214) and Taddeo (1285) were noted for their beneficence and their efforts for the preservation of peace. During the fourteenth centurj- Romagna was at the mercy of petty tyrants and Forlimpopoli was ruled by the Ordelaffi of Forli. Innocent VI first tried censures as a means of enforcing liis commands as sovereign, and sent Cardinal Albornoz to Forlimpopoli (1355). Francesco II, of the Ordelaffi family, however, when the cardinal had left, burned the statue of the pope in the public square, and was guilty of great cruelty towards the clergy.

In 1360 Albornoz took the city by force, obliged the inhabitants to abandon it, and razed it to the ground. The episcopal see was then transferred to Bertinoro, and the bishop, Roberto dei Resinelli, an Augustinian, took with him the relics of St. RufiUus. Forlimpopoli was gradually rebuilt, and Leo XII restored it to the rank of a city. The bishop, how- ever, remained at Bertinoro. In 1377 Roberto was succeeded by Bishop Teobaldo, who received from Urban VI the civil authority over Bertinoro and Cesena, and by virtue of his authority fought against the bodies of mercenaries recruited by the Antipope Clement VII, by whom he was made prisoner. Bishop Ventura degli Abati was highly praised by Martin V for his learning and piety. Tommaso Caselli, a Dominican (1544), was an able theologian; Gianandrea Caligari (1580), formerly nuncio to Poland, restored the Cathedral of Santa Caterina. Giovanni della Robbia (1624), a Dominican, estab- lished at Forlimpopoli the Accademia degli In- fiammati. In 1S03 Pope Pius VII was obliged to suppress the Diocese of Bertinoro which, however, was re-established in 1817. From 1824 to 1859 it was united to the Diocese of Sarsina. In the Diocese of Bertinoro is situated the celebrated church of Polenta, in Romanesque style, wliich inspired one of the most beautiful odes of Carducci.

The diocese contains 63 parishes, 93 churches, chapels, and oratories, 92 secular priests, 78 regulars, 32 seminary students, 5 lay brothers, 90 members of female religious orders, 1 school for boys, and 5 for girls, and a population of 32,.500.

C.\PPELLETTI. Le chiese d'ltalia (Venice. 1844), 11; Anntuirio eccl. (Rome, 1900).

U. Bexigni.

Bertonio, Ludovico, an Italian missionary, b. 1552 at Rocca Contrada near Ancona; d. at Lima, Peru, 3 August, 1625. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1575. Sent to Peru six years later, he laboured principally among the Aymar^ Indians of Southern Peru and of Bolivia, and has left valuable works on the Aymard, language. His earliest publications on that idiom appeared under the title " Arte breve de la lengua aymara para introducir el Arte grande de la misma leng\ia" (Rome, 1603), also "Arte y gramdtica muy copiosa de la lengua aymard" etc. The printing press having been introduced and estabUsbed by the Jesuits at the Indian mission

of Juli in Southwestern Peru, Bertonio had the fol- lowing works printed there, all in the year 1612: — " Arte de la lengua aymara con una selva de frases en la misma lengua y su declaracion en romance " ; " Vocabulario de la lengua aymara" (first and second part) ; " Confesionario muy copioso en dos lenguas. aymard, y espafiola" etc.; "Libro de la vida y mila- gros de Ntro Seiior Jesuchristo en dos lenguas, aymara y romance, traducido del que recopilo el Licenciado Alonso de Villegas " etc. The publications by Father Bertonio being as rare as they are important, Platz- mann has published in facsimile the " Arte y grama- tica" of 1603 and the Vocabularies. Manuel Vicente Balli\'ian in a pamphlet conclusively refutes the slur cast by Sir Clements Markham on Bertonio, that the latter invented the name "Aymard".

Torres Saldamando, L^s anti{fUos Jesuilas del Peru (Lima. 1882); Mendiburu, Diccionario (Lima, 1870), II; Bai.livian. Boletln de la Sociedad geoffrdfica de la Paz.

Ad. F. Bandelier.

Bertrand, S.\int Louis. See Louis Bertrand, Sai.vt.

Bertrand, Pierre (1) a French Cardinal, theo- logian, and canonist, b. 1280 at Annonay in Vivarais; d. 1348 or 1349 at the Priory of Montaud, near Avignon. His noble parentage is known to us through the manuscript memoir of Grasset, a Celes- tine monk of the seventeenth century (Discours genealogique de la noble maison de Bertrand et de leur alliance avec celle de Colombier). The legal profession seems to have been the first aim of his education. He successively studied and taught law in the Universities of Avignon, Montpellier, Orleans, and Paris. Prized as one of the best law- regents of his day, he soon reached high positions in the Parliament of Paris, the King's Council, and the Queen's Chancery. His definite calling lay, however, in another direction, and he became a priest. His priestly career was no less brilliant than his legal success. We find him in rapid succession Dean of Puy-en-Valais, Bishop of Nevers, Bishop of Autun. In 1331 Pope John XXII made him a cardinal in recognition of many services rendered to the Church. Among these services are to be reckoned several charitable institutions founded at Annonay, and the College d'Autun, or College Cardinal, established in Paris on behalf of fifteen poor students, five for theology, five for law, and five for the fine arts. Bertrand's best title to recog- nition is, however, his defence of the rights of the Church both by word of mouth and also with his pen. Fournier, in his "Officialites du moyen-age" (Paris, 1880), points out, at the beginning of the Valois dynasty, a strong tendency of the State towards curtailing the Church's traditional rights. In 1329 took place the famous "Conference de Vincenncs", where Pierre de Cugnieres, speaking for Philippe de Valois, bitterly complained of undue extension of ec- clesiastical privileges (e. g., the ordination of clerics for the sole purpose of enjoying the privilegium fori; causes des veuves, or widow's causes drawn to ecclesi- astical courts; the free use of censures to enforce the Church's privileges; appeals to the Church from the decision of civil courts, etc.). Pierre Bertrand, then Bishop of Autun, was the principal spokesman of the clergy. He replied in a spirit of conciliation to all charges bearing on minor points, but strongly upheld what he considered the essential rights of the Church. Following on the lines of the Bull "Unam Sanctam" of Boniface VIII, he summed up his plea in four statements; (1) the secular power is from God; (2) yet, it is not by itself sufficient for the government of the people, for which spiritual jurisdiction is also required; (3) although nothing

Erevents the two powers from being in the same ands; (4) still, whether in the same or di£Ferent