out a pro\'incial town, exercising no influence on the world at large, and almost unheard of in the politics of the day. Nevertheless, the Emperor Konstas on his way to Sicily in 662 spent the winter in Athens; and after his \-ictories over the Bulgarians in 1018, Basil II visited this city to celebrate liis triumphs. When, imder Constantine, the Empire was di\'ided into governmental cUoceses, the close relations wliich then were created between the Church and the State caused the ecclesiastical di\-isions to be often iden- tical with the civil. By this system all of Achaia, wherein was Athens, was included within the Diocese of Eastern lUj-ria, of which Thessalonika was the capital. All of this Diocese of Eastern Ilh-ria was under the direct jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome. And so it remained until the reign of Leo the Isav- rian. This emperor, incensed at Pope Gregorj' III, because of his strong opposition to Leo's icono- clastic passion, retorted against the pope by trans- ferring these countries of the llhTian diocese from the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome to that of the See of Constantinople. Tins occurred in the year 732. In tliis great struggle between the icono- clasts and the adherents to the use of the icons, the Athenians placed themselves on the side of icon- olatrj'. Wliile accepting without any recorded pro- test "their transference to the jurisdiction of the Eastern patriarch, they retained the images in their churches and continued to venerate them. All the inhabitants of Greece north of the Korinthiac Gulf, who then were called Helladikoi. or Helladians. were opposed to the iconoclasts. And their opposition was so determined that they fitted out an expedi- tion and manned a fleet, intending to attack Con- stantinople, depose Leo, and place their leader, Kosmas, on the throne. In this expedition, in which the Athenians doubtlessly had an important part, assistance was given by the inhabitants of the Kyklad islands, who probably furnished most of the ships. The attempt, however, was futile. The fleet was easily destroyed by the imperial ships in April, 727. The mutual bitterness which was evinced in Con- stantinople bj' the contending parties of Photians and Anti-Photians was reflected here in Athens. Gregory II was archbishop when Ignatios was re- stored to his throne as Patriarch of Constantinople. Ignatios deposed him as being an adherent of Pho- tios. His successor, Kosmas. was also later deposed. Then Niketas. a Byzantine, came to Athens as arch- bishop with the title of metropohtan. This Xiketas was a supporter of Ignatios. His successor, Anas- tasios, was a follower of Photios. Sabbas, who succeeded Anastasios, was likewise a Photian and was one of those who signed the acts of the sjTiod which closed in May, SSO, by wliich Photios was again recognized as patriarch. A bull of his still exists, whereon he designates himself as "Metropoh- tan of Athens".
Throughout the East there was a pecuhar type of Panagia-icon, copies of wliich might be seen in mon- asteries and churches in manj- places. This was the Panagia Gorgoepekoos. This Panagia Gorgoe- pekoos seems to have been originally an Athenian icon, and was probably identical with an icon which was called the Panagia Atlteno'otissa. The Athen- wotissa was the Madonna of the church in the Parthenon. This icon is mentioned by Michael Akominatos.
After the conquest of the Byzantine Empire by the Europeans of the Fourth Crusade, in the par- titionment which followed, Athens and the rest of Greece were given to Boniface, King of Thes- salonika. Boniface gave .\thens to one of his fol- lowers, Otho de la Roche. At their coming to Athens the Franks found it small and insignificant. They chose Thebes to be the seat of civil power rather than Athens. Thebes was a more important
trade centre than was Athens. Athens, however, was considered important enough to be continued as an archbishopric. It thus was ranked in equal dignity with the other larger cities of Greece, such as Thebes, witliin de la Roche's dominion, and Patra and Kor- inth in the Morea. The conquest of Greece was accomphshed in 120-1 and 1205. The first Latin archbishop introduced the Latin ritual into the cathedral, the Parthenon, in the year 1206. This was Archbishop Berard. Thus after a lapse of cen- turies from the time of Leo the Isa\Tian. Greece and Athens were again placed under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome. During the Frankish rule the archbishops of Athens were without exception of the Latin Rite, and were of ^Yestern lineage. Like- wise the canons of the cathedral, in the Parthenon, ■were of Latin Rite, and were Franks. Their number was fixed by Cardinal Benedict, papal legate in Thessalonika, by order of Pope Innocent III. But the ritual of the common priests was not disturbed. The people continued to enjoj' their own rites, cele- brated by Greek priests in the Greek language. These Greek priests had. however, at least outwardly, to acknowledge the jurisdiction of the Latin arch- bishop. Amongst the sees which were suffragan to the Archbishop of Athens were those of Chalkis, Thermopylffi (or Bodonitsa) Davleia, Avion, Zorkon, Karj'stos, Koroneia. .\ndros, Skj-ros, Kea, and Megara. Thelast bishop of the Greek 'Rite was the learned Michael Akominatos. who, when the Franks came, retired to the Island of Keos, after first visiting the cardinal legate of the pope in Thessalonika to im- petrate certaui favours for those formerly under liis charge who wished to adhere to the Greek form of worship. In Keos he li\-ed as a monk in the monas- terj' of St. John the Baptist. To support the Latin archbishop, and the canons, and the cathedral church, a number of possessions were given to him. Amongst these was the monastic property of Ka>sariane. and the island of Belbina, which Pope Innocent III gave to the Archbishop of Athens in 1208. The Frankish cavaliers lived in splendour in Thebes and Athens. The dignitaries of the Church lived in ease. -Along with the coming of the Franks and the Latin Church there came also Latin monks. The Cistercians es- tablished themselves near Athens in 1208 in the beautiful nionasterj' of Daphne, wliich previously was in the possession of Greek Basilian Fathers. The Franciscans were the most active religious order in Greece during tliis period. There were also Do- minican convents.
In the year 1311 another great change came over Athens. The Franks were defeated by the Catalans in the swamps of the Kephisos in Boeotia. Athens, with Thebes, became their possession. L'nder their sway, which lasted more than seventy-five years, the higher dignitaries of the Church continued naturally to be Latins. In these days there were fourteen suffragan sees under the Archbishopric of Athens, and at the cathedral there were eleven or twelve canons. In 13S7 another change overtook Athens. The Catalonian possessions came under the owner- sliip of the Acciajoli, Florentines who had risen to eminence as bankers. The Acci.ijoh retained pos- session of Athens until dri\'en out by Oma>r Pasha, who in June of 1456 entered the city and, in 1458, took possession of the Akropolis for Ins Sultan, Mohammed II. The only notable change in eccle- siastical matters under the Acciajoh was that they permitted two archbishops to reside in Athens, a Greek dignitarj' for the Catholics of the Greek Rite, and a Latin for the Franks. In tins way the defec- tion of the Greeks of .\thens from Roman jurisdiction was again a fact. The Latin archbishop lived in the Castro, that is. on the Akropolis, and the Greek prelate had his residence in the lower city. Franco Acciajoli was the last Duke of Athens. The last