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BOAST


605


BOBBIO


with Bishop Challoner, of the so-called Douay Bible; while adhering closely to the text of the Vulgate, the revisers sacrificed the energetic language of the older translators for a much weaker one wliich frequently lacks dignity. His other works com- prise expositions of the Penitential Psalms and other portions of Holy Scripture, sermons, and con- troversial writings.

The Rheims Testament, with Annotations (London, 1738); •GiLLOw, Bibl. Dwt. Enff. Cath., I, 252; Zimmehmax, Carmel in England (London, 1S99), 373.

B. Zimmerman.

Boast, John. See Tkithemius.

Bobadilla, Nicolas, b. at Valencia, Spain, 1.511; d. at Loretto, Italy, 23 September, 1.590. After having taught philosophy in his native country, he went to Paris to acquire a more perfect knowledge of Greek and Latin. Here he met Ignatius of Loyola, joined him in his plans and was among the first seven followers of the saint to consecrate tiiem- sleves to God in the Society of Jesus, at Montmartre, 15 August, 1534. Hereafter BobadiUa's career was a very active one, as a most zealous worker in the cause of the Catholic Faith. While serving the sick in the camp of the army of Charles V about Ratisbon, he himself caught the plague. Here too, about this time, 1546, as he was returning from the camp into the city he was waylaid by assassins and severely wounded. At another time he barely escaped with his hfe from an attempt to poison him.

By order of the Sovereign Pontiff Paul III, Boba- dUla took a prominent part in the Diets of Nurem- berg, 1543, and of Speyer, 1543, as well as in that of Ratisbon, 1546. Shortly after this an incident oc- curred which forced him to leave Germany. In 1548, the "Interim" of Augsburg was published by the Emperor, Charles V. It was a tentative document intended to suggest a basis of agreement between Catholics and Protestants until their religious differ- ences could be definitely settled. But as it seemed in the eyes of many Catholics to go too far, and in the eyes of many Protestants not far enough, it satisfied neither party. Bobadilla opposed it in speech and in writing, and so vigorously, that although he was highly esteemed in the imperial court, he was obliged, by the Emperor's order, to retire from Germany. He was a most popular preacher, as is e\'idenced by the fact that he delivered sermons in seventy-seven archbishoprics and bishoprics in Italy, Germany, and Dalmatia.

The writings of Bobadilla cover a wide range of topics. Among them are commentaries on some ■chapters of Genesis and other portions of the Old and New Testaments; annotations on the Gospels; treatises on predestination, the sacraments and their use, against the Lutherans, cases of conscience; a defence of the Council of Trent against Melanchthon and Calvin, etc. The last survivor of the seven first companions of Ignatius of Loyola, Bobadilla took part in the election of four generals of the Society of Jesus.

BoERo, Vita del servo di Dio P. Nicola Bobadilla, della c. di. G. (Florence, 1879); Sommervogel, Bilil. de la c. de J ., I, 15.53; Orl.inddji, Hiat. Soc. Jesu, I, 81. 135, 170.

Joseph M. Woods.

Bobbio, Abbey and Diocese of. — The diocese {Ebovium, or Bohium; Dicccesis Elxirlethsin, or Bob- iensis), which is suffragan to the Archiepiscopal See of Genoa, is conterminous with the civil district of Bobbio. Tliis district is situated in the Province of Pavia and contains, besides Bobbio, its chief town, only two small villages and eighteen communes. The diocese was suppressed from 1803 to 1817, during which time it was annexed to Alexandria, then to Casala. Pius VII re-established it in 1818. The population, entirely Catholic, is (1907) about 30,000. There are 52 parishes and 105 churches or


chapels, served by 80 secular priests. The cathedral chapter consists of a provost, archpriest, and ten canons. In the diocesan seminan,' there are at pres- ent 40 students. L'nder Bishop Gianelh a congre- gation of priests was formed in 1839 under the title of Oblates of St. .\lphonsus Liguori. They devote themselves especially to hearing confessions in prisons and hospitals, as well as to spreading good hterature among the people. Bobbio also possesses a Con- gregation of Daughters of Mary, popularly known as Gianelliane.

History. — The origin of the See of Bobbio, indeed of the town itself, is due to the establishment of a monastery here by the Irish saint, Columban, in 614. The Lombards, with other savage tribes, had invaded northern Italy under their leader Alboin in 568. A half-.\rian, half-heathen horde, wherever they passed all the horrors of wanton destruction and cruelty marked their track. But at length the new barbarian ruler, Agilulph, became less hostile and by degrees even not unfavourably disposed towards the Catholic Faith. Queen Theodehnda, whom he married in 590, was a fervent CathoHc; she had won- derful influence over her consort, and at last he was converted by the preaching of Columban. From the day of his baptism, Agilulph displayed great zeal for the conversion of his subjects, and for this purpose gave St. Columban a ruined church and devastated district known as Ebovium, which, before the Lombards seized it. had formed part of the Patri- mony of St. Peter. Columban had set his heart on this secluded place, for while intent on instructing the Lombards he chose solitude for his monks and himself. By the side of this little church, which was dedicated to St. Peter, soon arose the walls of an abbey. Here the nucleus of what was to be the most celebrated library in Italy was formed by the MSS. which Columban had brought from Ireland and the treatises of which he himself was the author.

The sainted founder of Bobbio was soon afterwards laid to rest (23 November, 615), but his crosier passed into worthy hands. The names of St. Attala (627) and St. Bertulf (640) will live forever in ecclesi- astical history. Both were conspicuous for holiness and learning, and both inherited Columban's apos- tolic spirit. It was indeed sorely needed, for a reaction towards Arianism set in, which became formidable under the Arian king, Rotharis (63(3-652). Arioald. the immediate predecessor of Rotharis, who became a Catholic, had before his conversion caused St. Bladulf. a monk of Bobbio. to be assassinated, because Bladulf would not salute him, as being an Arian. It is said that Attala restored Bladulf to life and delivered Arioald from a diabolical posses- sion, the punishment of his crime; and that this two- fold miracle led to Arioald's conversion. In 628, when St. Bertulf made a pilgrimage to Rome, Hono- rius I exempted Bobbio from episcopal jurisdiction, thus making the abbey immediately subject to the Holy See. Lender the next abbot, Bobolen, the rule of St. Benedict was introduced. At first its observ- ance was optional, but in course of time it superseded the more austere rule hitherto in use, and Bobbio joined the Congregation of Monte Cassino. In 643, at the request of Rotharis and Queen Gundelberga, Pope Theodore I granted to the .\bbot of Bobbio the use of the mitre and other pontificals. It has even been asserted that Bobbio had a bishop, named Peter .\ldus, as early as the seventh centurj', but according to the best authorities (L'ghelli, Gams, and others) the See of Bobbio was not founded till four centuries later, although recent investigation has shown that the name of its first bishop really was Peter .\ldus (Savio, 158).

From the seventh century on, in the midst of widespread turmoil and ignorance, Bobbio remained a home of piety and culture. Through the efforts