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The remaining productions of Bolgeni are chiefly devoted to attacks on Jansenism, Josephinism, and Jacobinism. Not long after the suppression of the Society of Jesus he entered the hsts ■n-ith the Society's traditional enemy, Jansenism, by publishing "Esame della vera idea della Santa Sede" (Macerata, 1785; Foligno, 1791), a work undertaken in refutation of the Jansenistic doctrines contained in "La Vera Idea della Santa Sede by Pietro Tamburini, a celebrated pro- fessor of the University of Pa\'ia. Several replies to the criticisms of Tamburini and to the censures of the Archpriest Guadagnini were published in rapid suc- cession. In 1787, ne WTote "Stato de' bambini morti senza battesimo", and in it scored the rigid doctrine of Guadagnini that infants dying ^«thout baptism are doomed to the torments of Hell. This controversy over, he devoted his pen to defending the juridical powers of the hierarchy, cataloguing the errors of the day, and combating the principles of Josephinism in Austria and of the Revolution in France. His publi- cations at this period were: "Fatti dommatici ossia deir infallibilita della Chiesa nel decidere sulla dottrina buona, o cattiva de' libri" (Brescia, 1788); "Specchio istorico da serNdre di preservativo contra gli errori cor- renti" (1789); "L'episcopato ossia della potesta di governare la Chiesa " (1789). These literary labours led to his appointment by Pius VI as Theologian- Penitentiary and in this capacity he issued a defence of "L'episcopato" (Rome, 1791), and " Dissertazione sulla giurisdizioneecclesiastica" (Rome, 1791), a refu- tation of George Sicard's contention that the powers of orders and jurisdiction were identical. About the same time he renewed his attacks on Guadagnini and Tamburini, refuting the former's state-deifying pro- clivities in "L'Economia della Fede Cristiana" (Brescia, 1790), and the latter's anti-ecclesiasticism in "Problema se i Giansenisti siano Giacobini" (Rome, 1794). "L'Economia della Fede Cristiana" was of such merit that it was incorporated by Migne in his "Demonstrations Evang^Iiques ", vol. XVIII.

The last phase of Bolgeni 's life is to say the least a strange one. After Napoleon I had seized Rome, Bolgeni, with wellnigh unintelligible inconsistency, favoured the anti-regal oath of allegiance imposed by the conqueror. This change of front he defended vigorously and subtly, but vainly. He was obliged to make a retractation in the presence of the cardinals assembled at Vienna for the election of a pope; "Ritrattazione di Gio. Vincenzo Bolgeni diretta a Monsignor lUmo. e Rmo. Vicegerente di Roma ' '. His writings during this unfortunate stage of his career were: "Parere sul giuramento ci\'ico" (Rome, i798); "Sentimenti de' professori della universita del Col- legio Romano sopra il giuramento prescrifto dalla Re- publica Romana" (Rome, an. VII); "Sentimenti sul giuramento civico" (Rome, an. Vll); "Metamorfosi del dott. Gio. Marchetti, da penitenzicre mutato in penitente" (1800); "Parere . . . sull' alienazione do' beni ecclesiastici"; " Schiarimenti " to confirm the preceding. After his death a work was edited, be- lieved by some to be from his pen, "Dei limiti delle due potestA ecdesiastica e secolare" (Florence, 1849), and it was put on the Index donee corrigatur. It is most probably unauthentic.

HtJBTEH, Xomenclalnr, III, 530; De Backer, Bibl. dee ^criv. de la c. de J ., II, 70; Bernard in Diet, de theol. cath., s. v.; SoMMERVOGKL, BiM. de la c. de J., I, U(il; Civillii callolua (1850), II, 451; Palmieri, De pomilenliu, 234.

J. T. Langan.

Bolivia, a South American republic which lies between longitudes west of Greenwich 57° 30' and 74°, and latitudes 8° and 22° 50' south. These figures are, however, still subject to treaty changes.

Area, Popul.-vtion, etc. — The republic covers an area of 702,767 sq. miles (1,822,334 sq. kilometers) and ranks as third in size among the South American countries. In 1905 its population was estimated

at 1,816,271, or a little more than five persons to every two square miles. Of these, 231,088 are reported as whites; 484,611 as mestizos, and 792,850 as Indians. Besides these, there were about 4,000 negroes, and the residue are of unascertained origin. The proportion of CathoUcs to non-Catholics is approximately as seventy-two to one. All these figures are to be taken with reserve, since the efforts at serious statistics are but very recent.

Since the close of the war with Chile in 1881, Boh via has had no sea-coast. It is bounded on the west, north-west, and north by Peru; on t he north-east and east by Brazil; on the south-east by Paraguay; on the south by the Argentine Republic, and on the south-west by Chile. Its commimications with the outer world were still defective in 1905. A Une of steamers on Lake Titicaca then plied between the Peruvian port of Puno and the Bolivian of Huaqui, and stage lines, between La Paz and the Chilian frontier. On the east side of the Andes, in the Basin of the Amazon, rivers, which are often interrupted in their u]5per course by rapids {cachue- las), afford the only means of transit. Bolivia had two short railroad lines of its own, besides the Chilian line to Oruro, of which the terminus is upon

A Street in La Paz

Bolivian soil. The two BoUvian railroads were trunk-lines, with an aggregate length of sixty-five miles. Work was, however, progressing on several other newly begun lines.

Bolivia is divided into nine departments and a "National Territory of Colonies", the area of which co\'ers somewhat less than one-third of the whole surface of the republic, while its population is only one-sixtieth of the whole. Of the nine de- partments. La Paz is the most populous. Since 1899 the national capital has been La Paz de Aya- cucho, with a population of 59,014 souls, situated in this department. Next to La Paz in importance is Cochabamba with 21,886 inhabitants. Sucre and Potost are reported with 20,900 each, and Santa Cruz de la Sierra with 18,000, while the im.