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and philosopher, b. at Prague, 5 October, 1781; d. 18 December, 1848. As a student he devoted himself chiefly to mathematics with marked suc- cess. Against the wish of his father, he entered the ecclesiastical state and was ordained in 1805. In the same year he was appointed professor of the philosophy of religion in the University of Prague. His lectures and discourses were strongly tinged with rationalism, and it was not long before he was denounced to the ecclesiastical authorities. Through the personal intervention of the Prince-Archbishop Salm-Salm of Prague, he retained his professor- ship until 1820, when the long-threatened dismissal was suddenly put into effect in consequence of disorders that occurred in the seminary of Leit- meritz then under the direction of Dr. Fessl, who, as a disciple and friend of Bolzano, was strongly imbued with the latter's rationalizing spirit. Bol- zano spent the remainder of his life in studious retirement, first on the estate of his friend Joliann Hoffmann, at Techobuz, near Prague, and later in the house of his brother at Prague. A small pension, and the generosity of Count Leo Thun, relieved him of all monetary care.

Bolzano was always a loyal son of the Catholic Church. There is, however, a strong rationalizing tendency in his writings on doctrinal subjects, and his refusal to retract several propositions taken from his printed works justified his dismissal from the University of Prague. Bolzano's contribu- tions to the science of mathematics are of the high- est order. In 1804 he published a theorj' of parallel lines which anticipated I.egendre's well-known theory. He shares with Cauchy the honour of having developed the theory of functions of one real variable. He made notable additions to the theory of differentiation, to the concept of infinity, and to the binomial theorem. As a philosopher, Bolzano had no sj-mpathy for speculation as such. His mathematical bent made him a partisan of strict, methodic inquiry. His contributions to philosophy comprise a textbook on the "Science of Ecligion" (4 vols., Sulzbach, 1834), and one on the "Science of Ivnowledge" (4 vols., Sulzbach, 1837). Bolzano's complete writings fill twenty- five volumes. The fuU list is foimd in the "Sitzungs- berichte" of the Vienna Academy (1849).

Fessl, BoUanos Autobiographic ^^"ienna, iS75); Wisshaupt, Skizzen axis dem Lebcn Boharws (Leipzig. 1849): Erdm.inn, History of Philosophy, tr. (London. 1S90). II, 463-471.


Bombay (Bomb.iten.sis), Archdiocese of, com- prises the Island of Bombaj' with several outlying churches in the neighbouring Island of Salsette, and a large portion of the Bombay Presidency stretching northwards from the river Nerbudda as far as Quetta, including the districts of Gujerat (Broach, Baroda, Ahmedabad), Kathiawar, Cutch, Sind and a portion of Beluchistan. Most of the archdiocese is thus separated from its centre in Bombay Island by a distance of about 200 miles, the intervening countrj' being assigned to the Diocese of Damaun. The Catho- lic population under the archbishop is reckoned at about 18,000, of which about 8,000 are in Bombay Island; 3,500 in Salsette; 2,000 in Gujerat, Kathiawar, and Cutch, and 4,500 in Sind and Beluchistan. The archdiocese is ser\'ed by 50 fathers, 19 scholastics, and 16 lay brothers of the German province of the Society of Jesus, and 19 native secular priests, at- tending 24 churches and 25 chapels, besides Sisters of the Orders of Jesus and Mary and the Daughters of the Cross engaged in education and charitable work.

History. — In 1534 the Portuguese began to settle in Bombay. They were accompanied by the Franciscans, who gradually covered the "island with churches, monasteries, and communities of

converts. When in 1665 the island was ceded to the English, the work was continued by the same order and by secular clergy from Goa. In 1720, on political grounds, the Goanese clergy were expelled by the Govermnent, and the Vicar of the Great Mogul (formerly the Vicar of the Deccan) was invited to take charge of the Catholics. Although

Church of the Holy N.\me, Bombay

this was done with the approval of Rome, the Goanese clergj' from time to time tried with the Government to recover their position, and in 1764 estabhshed a "double jurisdiction". At first the vicariate extended indefinitely over tlie north of India; but in 1784 the northern portion was separated and given over to the Mission of Tibet. The vicariate then gradually began to be called the Vicariate of Bombay. It was under the care of the Carmelite fathers from 1720 to 1854. When they resigned their charge the vicariate was divided, the northern, or Bombay portion, being taken over by the Capuchins, wliile the southern, or Poona portion, was given to the German Jesuits. A few years later the Capuchins also resigned, and hence in 1858 the whole of the Bombay-Poona Mission came into the hands of the German Jesuits. Meantime a distressing conflict over the rights of jurisdiction (often referred to in literature as the Goan or Indo-Portuguese schism) was raging between the Goanese clergy of the Portuguese "padroado" and the vicars Apostolic under Propaganda, which, in spite of certain in- effectual negotiations, continued till 1886. In that year a concordat with Portugal was entered into by the Holy See, which brought the quarrel to a close, and at the same time the whole of India was placed under a fully constituted hierarchy. The Archbishop of Bombay received territorial jurisdiction over Bom- bay Island and over the northern districts already described, with Poona as a suffragan diocese. Man- galore and Trichinopoly were added as suffragan sees in 1893, in which year the First Provincial Council was held (Acta et Decreta, Bombay, 1898). The Lsland of Salsette and the coast country as far as the Nerbudda were placed under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Damaun who also received personal juris- diction in Bombay Island over all who came from Goa, or from any other district under the Portuguese ecclesiastical regime. This arrangement is popularly known as the "double jurisdiction".

Succession of Prelates. — Vkars-Apostolic of the Carmelite order: Maurice of St. Teresa, 1718-26; Peter D'Alcantara of the Most Holy Trinity, 1728- 45; Innocent of the Presentation, 1746-53; John Dominic of St. Clara, 1755-72; Charles of St. Con- rad, 1775-85; Victor of St. Mary, 1787-93; Peter D'Alcantara of St. Antony, 1794-1840; Aloysius Mary Fortini, 1840-48; John F. Whelan, 1848-