ecclesiastics, he began to lead a community life in a house near the church of Our Lady of Pity. Ville- franche. He was soon joined by others, and in 1639 the parish of Foix in the Diocese of Pamiers was en- trusted to his community, which a few years later opened a seminarj' at N'illefranche with Bonal as its director. In 1650 he organized a seminarj' and col- lege at Toulouse and, having gone to Agde with a similar purpose, in 1653, fell a victim to an epi- demic. The congregation fovmded by Bonal was ap- pro\-ed in 1665 by Pope Alexander VH, and in 1678 by King Louis XIV. For lack of subjects, however, the seminaries confided to the Bonahsts languished and were successively handed over to the Congregation of the Mission. After a Uttle more than a hundred years of existence, the con- gregation itself was absorbed by the Lazarists.
Raymond Bonal published a "Cours de theologie morale" the 8th edition of which is dated, Paris, 1685. This course, which was followed in the Sulpician seminaries at Toulouse, Valence, Thiers, and elsewhere, was translated into Latin by Pierre Laur (Toulouse, 1674), under the title "Theologia Moralis R. Bonalis". Another work of Raymond Bonal, "Explication litterale et mystique des rubri- ques" was published at Lyons in 1679.
Mangenot id Diet, de thiol, cath.; Faillon, Vie de M. Olier (Paris, 1873), X; Mercadier, Les constitutions, reglements et directoires de la congregation des Pritres de Sainte Marie (Mende, 1689); Bertr.ind, BMioth'eqwe Sidpicienne (Paris. 1900), I; Recueil des principales circuiaires des superieurs generaux de la congregation de la mission (Paris, 1877), I; Archives natio- nals (Paris), S. 6705, 6715, 6716; Archives of the Congregation of the Mission (Paris), MS. 1101.
F. V. Nugent.
Bonald, Louis-G.\briel-A5ibroise, Vicomte de, French statesman, writer, and philosopher, b. at Monna, near Millau, in Rouergue (Ave\Ton) 2 Oc- tober, 1754; d. at Paris, 23 November," 1840. He was educated by the Oratorians at the College of Juilly; joined the king's musketeers, returned to his own pro\nnce in 1776, was elected mayor of Millau in 1785, and in 1790 was chosen member of the departmental Assembly for AvejTon. He re- signed in 1791, emigrated, became a soldier in the army of Cond^, and, when the army was disbanded, retired to Heidelberg, where he took charge of the education of his two elder sons.
Bonald published at Constance, in 1797, his first work: "Tii^orie du pouvoir politique et religieux", which was suppressed in France by order of the Directory. In 1797 Bonald returned to France under the name of Saint-Severin. and published "Es- sai analytique sur les lois naturelles de I'ordre social" (1800); "Du divorce" (1801); and "La legislation primitive" (1802). He also collaborated with Cha- teaubriand and others in the "Mercure de France", contributing several articles which were published in book form mth other studies in 1819 under the title "Melanges litt^raires, politiques, et philosophiqucs". In 1808 he dechned to be a member of the Council of the L'niversity, but finally accepted in 1810. He refused to take charge of the education of the son of Louis Bonaparte, King of HoUand, and of the King of Rome, the son of Napoleon I.
A monarchist and royalist by nature and bj' prin- ciples, Bonald welcomed the restoration of the Bour- bons. He was ajjpointed a member of the Academy by royal decree in 1816. From 1815 to 1822 he served as deputy from AvejTon, and in 1823 became a peer of France. He then directed his efforts against all attempts at liberalism in religion and poli- tics. The law against divorce was proposed by him in 1815 and passed in 1816. He took a prominent part in the law of 1822 which did away with the liberty of the press and established a committee of censure of which he was the president. In 1815 he published liis "Reflexions sur Tint^ret g6a6ral de
I'Europe"; in 1817, "Pens^s sur divers sujets" in 2 vols. 8vo. (2d ed., Paris, 1887); in 1818 "Recherches philosophiqucs sur les premiers objets des connais- sances morales"; in 1827, "Demonstration philoso- phique du prineipe constitutif des societfe". Mean- while he collaborated T\-ith Chateaubriand, Lamen- nais, and Berryer, in the "Conservateur", and later in the "D^fenseur" founded by Lamennais. In 1830 he gave up his peerage and led a life of retirement in his native city. — "There is not to be found in this long career", says Jules Simon, "one action which is not consistent with his principles, one expression
which behes them. " r^ ^r a
G. M. Sauvage.
Bonald, Louis-J.\cques-Maueice de. Cardinal, b. at Millau, in Rouergue (now Aveyron), 30 Octo- ber, 1787; d. at Lyons, 25 Feb., 1870. He was the fourth son of the Vicomte de Bonald, the celebrated statesman and philosopher. Destined for the Church, he studied at Saint- Sulpice and was or- dained priest ill 1811. He was first attached to the im- perial chapel and after the Restora- tion went to Rome as secretary to Arch- bishop de Pres- signy, who was en- trusted by Louis XVIII with the task of arranging for a new Concordat. Three years later Bishop L a t i 1 of Chartres made him h i s %-icar-general. When the Diocese of Puy was re-es- tablished (1823) Bonald became its first bishop and re- mained there forsix-
teen years, until his promotion to the primatial See of Lyons (1839), and in 1841 Gregorj' XVI made him cardinal. Cardinal de Bonald is one of the glories of the French episcopate. His personal quahties, as well as the salient features of liis episcopal career, are most easily found in the only work we have from his pen, that long series of "Mandements et lettres pastorales", which show him to have been pious, sjTupathetic, eloquent, and full of zeal. His zeal seems to have embraced all vital interests. In point of doctrine. Bonald contributed a large share towards destroying all remnants of GalHcanism and Jansenism. The Jansenistic interpolations made by Montazet in the hturgical books of Lyons were, after a long struggle, finally suppressed. Dupin's Galilean book, Manuel de droit ecclfeiastique", was severely condemned by the primate, and when the Council of State declared him guilty of abuse (1845). Bonald repUed that the censure had not even touched him because "when the Council of State has pronounced on questions of doctrine, the cause is not finished". In matters of disciphne Cardinal de Bonald corrected many abuses, and he crowned his work by convening a provincial sjTiod (1850), whose statutes touched all the main points of churcli government. He always took great interest in social questions, and never was more eloquent than when appealing for help in behalf of miscrj', as for instance during the floods of 1840 and 1846 and the destitution of the Spanish refugees (1842). The closing of silk factories in Lyons gave him an opportunity of showing not only his liberahty towards the needy, but also liis Droad sympathy for the toiling class in general.