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tion; those ordained since Bonosus's condemnation, especially if they had themselves sought to be or- dained by him, were to be deprived of their dignity. As Innocent speaks of Bonosus as no longer living, we may infer that he died at the end of the fourth, or the beginning of the fifth centurj-.

Whether, besides denying JIary's perpetual vir- ginity. Bonosus also denied Christ's divinity cannot be determined with certainty. But it is certain that his followers, the Bonosians, to whom we find refer- ences in the councils and in ecclesiastical writers up to the seventh centurj-. denied this dogma. On this point they were at one with the Photinians. As a consequence, they affirmed the purely adoptive divine fihation of Our Lord. However, they dif- fered from the .\doptionists in rejecting all natural sonship, whereas the Adoptionists, distinguishing in Christ the God and the man, attributed to the former a natural, and to the latter an adoptive sonship. The baptism conferred by the Bonosians was by some declared valid and by others invalid.

Besides the collections of Jaffe. Mansi. Migne. Constant. etc., see Hefele, Concilietigcschichte (2 ed., Freiburg, 1873), II, III. V; Walch, Dissertatw de Bonosic hcrretico (Gottingen, 1754V Id.. ETihrnrf Hvi-r inlhl.mrlioen Hislorie der KeUeriien. Spaliungen und Reli'ii"' --^ ' ^' ■'■•!< n (Leipzig, 1762-85), III. 598; Tillemont, M< ", sTvir a Vhi&toire eccleitias-

tique (Paris, 1701-1-'. A ^ ' . ; .; L'eiller, Hiitoire generate des auleurs sacrea (2 ed. I'ar.,., IV, 652; VI, 107; VII, 514; I.E Bachelet in I'itl. de thiol, cath. II, 1027; Venables in Diet. Christ, Biog. I, 330.


Bon Secours (de P.\ris), Institute op, the first of the congregations of nursing sisters, gardes malades, founded in France during the nineteenth century, whose object is to take care of both rich and poor patients in their o^vn homes. This congregation was begun by Archbishop de Qudlen of Paris in 1822 and was formally approved by Pope Pius IX in June, 1875. Its members nurse the poor gratuitously. Pa- tients who can afford it pay for such service. The habit of the sisters is black; they wear a white cap with frilled border and a black veil. Besides the sixteen houses of the congregation in France, there are four in Ireland, one in Kngland, two in the United States, and one in Belgium, The mother-house is in Paris. The scope of the institute is expressed in the constitutions: ".4fter the personal sanctification of its members, the principal aim of this pious society is the care of the sick in their own homes ". -\lthough these sisters had governmental approbation and complied with the fiscal laws in France they have suffered heavily by the recent religious persecution. Four large schools which had been started in behalf of miners' children and at the urgent request of the mining population of Northern France (Lille, Lens, etc.) were closed on the plea that they formed no part of the institute's approved charter. .A.nd with the schools were also suppressed attendance by the sisters on sick or wounded miners and a very interest- ing work called "la goutte de lait", or "the drop of milk," a sort of dispensary wherein the sisters super- intended the food of miners' infants.

II. Bon Secours (de Troyes), Institute of, a congregation founded at Arcis-sur-.\ube, France, in 1840, by the Very Reverend Paul-S^bastien Millet, canon of the Cathedral of Troyes. The mother-house was moved to Troyes in 1843 and the name of that place was added to the title of the congregation in order to distinguish it from other sisterhoods whose object is also to nurse the sick in their own homes. The members of this congregation make no distinc- tion because of the creed or financial condition of their patients. The poor are nursed free, those who can afford to make some recompense do so, and the sisters accept what is given them, but are not allowed to beg. The approbation of the constitutions of the congregation was not given by the Holy See until 21 March, 1899. The novices go to the mother-house

in France for three years. Vows are renewed annu- ally for five years, then made for five years, and finally perpetual vows are taken. The habit is black with a small black cape, a black veil, and white guimpe. A crucifix suspended by a purple ribbon is worn round the neck. There are 120 houses of these sisters in various countries, most of them in France, outside of which territory there are 3 in Belgium, 4 in Italy, 1 in Spain, 3 in England, 1 in the United States, and 6 in .\frica. The sisters num- ber about 1,000.

Steele. The Comenta of Great Britain (St. Louis. 19021; The Catholic Directory (Milwaukee. 1907); Constitutions des Sceurs de Bon Secours (Paris, 1S77); Coutumier a I'usage des Soeura de Bon Secoura (Paris, 1881),

Thomas F. Meeh.\n.

Bonvicino, Aless.indro (called II Moretto, or Moretto da Brescia), one of the finest North Italian painters of the sixteenth century, b. at Brescia about 1498; d. at the same place, 1.5.5."). It is said that he was a pupil of Titian, but it is considered more likely that he was but an earnest student of the works of this great master wliose style he imitated so closely that many of his jior- traits bear well a comparison with those of the noted Venetian. It is known that he studied under his father, also a painter, and under Floriano Ferramola, and that G. Romanino had much influence over him. He himself had as a pupil that superb portrait painter, Giambattista Moroni. Bonvicino's man- ner is most natural and attractive; his feeling, where necessary, most devotional, his colour re- markable for its freshness and opulence, and his figures sympathetic and graceful. He was in his later life greatly influenced by Raphael. He as- sisted Ferramola in painting an altar screen for the old cathedral at Brescia and did similar work for Romanino in the church of San Giovanni Evange- lista in that city. It was here, also, that he produced his notable painting, the " Massacre of the Innocents".

Among his other church works at Brescia are the "Coronation of the Virgin", and "Christ in Glory", at Santi Nazzaro e Celso; "The Ascension of the Virgin", "Five Virgin Martyrs", and "St. Ursula", in San Clemente; "The Majesty of St. Margaret", in San Francesco; "The Enthronement of St. Anthony of Padua", in Santa Maria delle Grazie; "The Virgin and St. Nicholas", in Santa Maria de Miracoli; and "Christ in the House of Simon", in Santa Maria Calchera. In the Brescia Gallery, among other works, is a "St. Nicholas of Bari"; in Venice at Santa Maria della Pieta is his "Feast in the House of Simon"; in the Uffizi, at Florence, are "The Descent of Christ into Hades", "The Death of Adonis", and a male portrait; at the Brera in Milan, "The Assumption", "Virgin in Glory", "Sts. Clara and Catherine", and "St. Jerome and an .\postle"; at the Ambrosiana in the same city the "Death of Peter Martyr". At the Louvre are "St. Bernardine and St. Louis of Tou- louse " and " Sts. Bonaventure and Anthony"; at the National Gallerj' in London a "Virgin and Child with two Saints", "St. Bernardine of Sienna", and two portraits of Italian noblemen. In the Stadel Institute at Frankfort is the "Enthroned Madonna" with four doctors of the Church below, and there are examples in many other European galleries.

Fenaholi, .ileaaandro Bonvicino, etc. (Brescia, 18751; Brtan, Dictionary of Painters and Engravera (London and New York, 1903-05). ^

Augustus van Cleef.

Bonze. See Buddhism,

Book of Common Discipline. See Purit.vns.

Book of Common Prayer. — I. History. — On 21 January, 1549, the first Act of Uniformity was passed, imposing upon the whole realm of England