disability, a vice-president. The president is elected by popular vote for a term of four years, and he can- not serve for two successive terms. He is assisted by a cabinet, the members of which he appoints or re- moves at will. The cabinet ministers preside over the following six departments: (1) finance; (2) war; (3) industry, raihvay.s. and public works; (4) in- terior and justice; (oj XaN'y; (6) foreign affairs. The president, by virtue of his office, is in supreme com- mand of the Army and Navy. He possesses the veto power over legislation, but his \eto may be over- ruled by a two-thirds vote of both Houses. The judicial power is vested in a federal supreme court consisting of fifteen members who are appointed for life by the president witli the approv;il of the Senate. The States enjoy a greater measure of autonomy than those of the United States of North America. They are governed by their own legislatures and governors and have their own judicial systems. Each State is divided into municipalities; each mu- nicipality controlled by a council and a prefect.
Religion. — Under the Empire the Catholic was the only recognized Church, and it was supported by the States. Other religions were tolerated, but the Catholic was the official church. After the revolu- tion of 18S9, how- ever, the separa- tion of Church and State was de- creed. The Pro- visional Govern- ment issued, 7 January, 1890, a decree proclaim- ing the separa- tion of church and State, guar- aiitci'ini; freedom (if ucirsliip, and drc-hiriiig that no churcli thereafter should be subsid- izetl by the gov- I'rnment, nor in any way receive support either from the federal government o r from those of the individual States, By the teniLs of this decree public officers were for- bidden to inter- fere in any way with the forma- tion of religious societies, and it was declared to liilawful to stir up religious dissension among the I ■ '. Every religious body was at liberty to worship rdiiig to its own rites, while each individual could according to his belief, and unite in societies with 111 IS, and build churches if he chose. The salaries I hose in the service of the Church were ordered to iKContinued at the expiration of a year. The iiig churchyards were secularized, and the ques- iif the establishment of new cemeteries was left I Ik- hands of individual communities. Religious Ill's, however, could choo.se separate burial places, • iiish always subject to the laws. The existing u'ious holidays, except Sunday, were abolished by thcr decree, and nine new ones established com- iiiorating secular events. Later, a civil marriage A was passed, somewhat resembling those of tlie lited States and France, and also a divorce law. lis latter, however, bore the stamp of the religious
training of the people, for by its terms, neither party was permitted to marry again during the life of the other.
The conversion of Brazil, beginning about the mid- dle of the sixteenth centurj', was brought about by the Jesuits, after whom came the Franciscans, and these were followed by the Benedictines. The coun- trj' to-day is almost entirely Catholic. Of the nine- teen and a half millions, over eighteen millions are of the Catholic faith. There are 5127 churches and chapels, 2067 secular and 559 regular clergj^; 2083 nuns engaged in hospitals and educational institu- tions; 524 schools, 12 large and 17 small seminaries.
Ecclesiastical Or(;.\.miz.\tion. — The entire re- public is divided into the two ecclesiastical pro\inces of Sao Salvador da Bahia and Sao Sabastiao (Rio de Janeiro). Each province containing nine suffragan ilioresi's. as follows: Province oj Sao Salvador dii
Church of BoivrFiN, B.\hia
Bahia (diocese created 1.552, archidocese 1676); suffragan dioceses of Olinda (1676); S3o Luis do Maranhao (1676); Belem do Para (1719); Goyaz (1826); Fortaleza, or Ceard (18.54); Manaos (1893); Parahyba, (1893); Alagoas (1901); Piauhy (1902). Province oj Sao SehastiSo (diocese created 1675, arch- diocese 1893); suffragan dioceses of Cuyabd (1745); Mariauna (1745); Sao Paulo (1745); Sao Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul (1848); Diaraantina (1854); Curi- tyba do Parana (1893); Petropolis (1893); Espirito Santo (1896); Porto Alegre (1900). Brazil has re- ceived a great honour at the hands of the present pope, that of having the first South American cardi- nal ever nominated chosen among its clergy.
Education. — During the three centuries of colonial rule, Brazil made very little progress in the education of its people. There were few schools except the Jesuit colleges, and whatever libraries there were belonged to private individuals. The wealthy classes sent their children to Portugal to study, while those who could not bear this expense remained ignorant. After the declaration of independence, in 1822, con- ditions were somewhat improved, but the educational system was so crude that little progress was made mi- til 1854, when the whole school system was re- organized. Since then there has been good progre.ss in education, literature, and science, especially in the largo cities. In the interior education is in a back- ward state, owing to the isolation of the inhabitants, and to lack of facilities of communication. For this reason the percentage of illiteracy for the entire country remains high (above 84%). At the present