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ercy, 8; Order of St. Camillus of Lellis, 1; Re- mptorists, 1; Congregation of the Society of the ivine Word, 1; Alexian Brothers, 1; Poor Brothers

St. Francis, 2; Sisters of St. EHzabeth, 6; Magdalen sters, 1; Ursulines, 6; Sisters of the Good Shep- ■rd, 4; Sisters of St. Charles Borromeo, (a) from the other-house at Trebnitz, 181, (b) from the mother- )use at Trier, 5; Servants of the Sacred Heart of , 2; Sisters of Poor Handmaids of Christ, 3; ster-Servants of Mary, 27; German Dominican stars of St. Catharine of Siena, 11; Sisters of St. -ancis, 9; Grey Sisters of St. Elizabeth, 169; Sisters

St. Hedwig, 9; Sisters of Mary, 27; JPoor Sehool- sters of Notre Dame, 15; Vincentian Sisters, 7; .sters of the Holy Cross, 1; Sisters of St. Jo.seph, 1. I the above-mentioned monastic houses for men ere are 512 religious; in those for women, 5,208 ligious.

Stfnzel. Urkunden zur Geschichte des Bislums Breatau im ttdnlter (Breslau, 1845); Kastner, Archiv fur die Geschichte

by King Ladislaus of Hungary, to which Silesia then belonged, when the University of Cracow, fearing competition, succeeded in bringing the scheme to naught. The efforts made in 1527 by the Protes- tants to found a Silesian University at Liegnitz and in 1616 at Beuthen also failed. The Catholics sought to establish a theological school for the educa- tion of the diocesan clergy, and the endeavour led to the founding at Breslau, in 1565, of a theological seminary which was transferred in 1575 to Neisse. In 1623 the Bishop of Breslau, Archduke Carl of Austria, founded at Neisse a Jesuit college to which he gave a large endowment. The bishop intended to unite with tliis college a university ha\ing depart- ments of jurisprudence and medicine, but his death soon after the founding of the school prevented the carrying out of these plans.

A school founded by the Jesuits at Breslau in 1659 was more fortunate in its development. The Society conducted in the imperial citadel a gym-

The Universitt of Breslau

I'K BistuTTU Breslau (.3 vols., Neisse. 1858); Jungnitz, Ver- fffnilichungen aus dent fiirgtbischtflichcn DiOcezcaenarchive % Breslau (3 vols.. Hreslau. 19031: Hevnk. Dokumenlierle eschichte des BistumH Breahiu (3 vols. lireslau, IStiO); SoFF- KR, Geschichte der lirformation in Schlrsicn ( Breslavi. 1887); criplores rcrum Silesinrnrum (17 vols.. Breslau. 183.")); Coder iplomaticus SUenvr (2.3 vols.. lire.slau, lS.j7); Acta publica S vols., Breslau. 18ti", i;<rhrijl fiir Geschichte Schlesiens 10 vols., Breslau. is.',',i: < :ui \-ii.\gen, Geschichte Schlexiens 2 vols., Gotha. ls\4); Iih.m, SchUsien unter Friedrich dcm rossen (2 vols., Breslau. ISUU).

University op Bueslau. — The founding of a uni- ersity at Breslau was first debated in 1409, when he Czechs made it impossible for the Germans to ontinue their studies at the University of Prague nd virtually drove them from it. But Leipzig and ot Bre.slau obtained the new seat of learning. J)()ut a century later, under the quickening impulse f Humanism, the project was again taken up by the ity of Breslau in conjunction with the bishop, ohann Roth, and his coadjutor. Johann Turzo, nd a "generale literarum gymna-sium" to contain U four faculties was planned. The charter of this istitution had been signed at Ofen, 20 July, 1505,

nasium, the higher classes of which corresponded to those in the philosophical department of a university. Theological studies were introduced in 1666. These two courses were carried on as in a uni\-ersity, but the school had no power to confer degrees. In order to obtain the charter necessary for the conferring of degrees and for the development of the institution, the Jesuit Father Wolf sought, from 1694 on, to obtain the consent of F.mperor Leopold I to the erection of the school into a university. Father Wolf was also active in the negotiations between the courts of Berlin and Vienna concerning the conces- sion of the title of King to the Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg. The plans Father Wolf sought to carry out were far-reaching. He held it a misfor- tune that Silesians were obliged to go to universities outside of Silesia, where Catholics often had no opportunity for the exercise of their religion. His scheme was a national Silesian university, endowed with all the academic privileges, which should be open to students irrespective of their religious be- liefs. This project encountered the opposition of