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are found which have been borrowed from the offices in the Aberdeen Breviary.

MisceUan,, of !he Spalding Club. II, 364-366, and Preface, p. exx (Aberdeen. 1842); Kalendars of Scottish Saints (ed. Forbes, Edinburgh, 1SG2); Registrum Episcopatus Moraviensis (ed. Bannatvne Club. Edinburgh, 1S37); Breviarium Aber- danense (London, 1854), Pref. by L.tlNo; Viax in Diet. Nat. Biog.. s. V. Elphinstom. William.

D. O. Hlxter-Bl.ur.

Brewer, Heixrich, a German historian, b. at Puflfendorf in Germany, 6 September, 1640; d. at the same place about 1713. He was educated at the Gymna-fium Tricoronatum in Cologne and was ordained priest in 1664. After this he was for a time a private tutor at Cologne, then curate of the cathedral at Bonn. He continued his studies while filling these positions and in 1607 was made lecturer on theologj' at the University of Cologne. From 1669 to 1682 he was rector of a convent of nuns at Cologne, a position which gave him the leisure to carrj' on his historical studies. In 16S2 he became parish priest of the church of St. Jacob at Aachen. After twenty-nine years of fruitful labour he resigned his pastorate in 1712 and returned to his quiet native town. During his residence at Bonn he published, in 1668, a poem of slight poetic value entitled: " Crinitum poU Sidus". His most important work is: " Historica rerum notabiliorum ubique pa-ne terrarum gestarum enar- ratio; breviter et succincte pro historite universalis Bracheho-Thuldenans continuatione adornata", (Cologne, 1672-75, two volumes). Shortly after this he published a revised edition of the " Historia Universalis Brachelio-Thuldenana " in eight volumes. Brewer now received the title of Imperial Historiog- rapher. The honour was fitly bestowed, for Brewer was one of the few historians who seek out original sources and make full use of them. He added to each volume copies of important official documents, be- sides making skilful use of pictures and maps. A much discussed question of the time was the identity of the author of the "Imitation of Christ". Brewer made an independent investigation and tried to prove that Thomas k Kerapis was the author in a work en- titled: "Thomse a Kempis biographia" (Cologne, 1681). Even from the modem point of view this work is a very creditable one. A publication of less importance and one which is at times strongly marked by local feeling is that entitled: " Der in der Reliquienverehrung rechtschaffen catholisch und wahrhaftig grosser Kayser Karl bey gewohnlicher Eroffnung der Aachischen Schatzkammer Hey- ligthumbs" (Aachen, 1685).

H.\RTZHEIM, Bibliotheca Coloniensis, 114.

Patricics Schl.\ger.

Breynat, Gabriel. See M.^ckenzie, Vic. Ap. of.

Brian Boroimbe (Boru). See Irel.^nd.

Briand, Joseph OwsaER, seventh Bishop of Quebec, b. in 1715 at Florin, Brittany; d. 25 June, 1794. He studied at the Seminar.' of St. Brieuc, anil was ordained in 1739, but left home secretly to follow Bishop Fontbriand to Canada. Briand was a stren- uous worker, self-possessed, tactful, and devoted. During the siege of Quebec (1759), he, as vicar- general, directed the diocesan affairs in the absence of the bishop. He ministered to the djing at the battle of St. Foy (1760), and after the bishop's death was appointed administrator of the diocese which then included Acadia, Louisiana, and Illinois. During the crisis in New France, when many colonists aban- doned the countrj', Briand foresaw that a change of allegiance' was inevitable, and realized the benefit which would accrue to the people of Canada.

When the Treaty of Paris (1763) was signed he ordered a Te Deum for the cessation of the Seven Years' War and praised Cieneral Murray for his humanity towards the conquered. In the midst of the fanaticism which attempted to violate the treaty

and hamper religious freedom, Briand appealed to London to maintain the rights of the Church. The British Crown finally gave ear to his demand, ami he was consecrated in Paris (1766).

Hailed as the second founder of the Church in Canada, Briand was joj-fuUy received by the people and the British governor. The pope also expres.sed his pleasure and approved Bishop Briand's past attitude, thereby removing the charges that he had acted with timidity towards Murray and Dorchester (see Brasseur and Faillon). Despite his poverty, he declined a gift of the clergy and a plan for his support, and took up his residence at the Seminary of Quebec. Briand's purpose in reconciling the claims of Rome and London was to insure the permanence of the episcopacy. He demanded two bishops simultane- ously, so that the survivor, Rome permitting, might consecrate his successor. This request was finally granted. Through his influence and tact, further plans for perverting the faithful were thwarted. Tlie Test Oath was modified so as to be acceptable to the Holy See, and the passage of the Quebec Act (1774), admitting Catholics to public functions and confirming religious freedom, and of the Habeas Cor- pus Act, granting Catholics the rights and privileges of British subjects, was also partly due to Briand's efforts.

After the expulsion of the Jesuits from Louisiana and Illinois Bishop Briand appointed Father Meurin vicar-general in the latter section of the countrj'. When the forces of the Continental army invaded Canada in 1775, he issued a pastoral letter in which he enjoined fidelity to the king. The Continental Congress in an address to the king and people of England had protested against the Quebec Act, while in its appeal to the Canadians there were no features which were objectionable to Catholics. Briand denounced this duplicity and drew attention to the actions of the Colonists twenty years pre\ious both in their cruelty towards the Acadians and their laws against missionaries. L'pon Montgomerjs defeat he ordered a Te Deum, and in 1776 he isssued another energetic letter in which he urged to repent- ance those Canadians who had aided the invading troops, whom he characterized as enemies of the Faith. This, together with the drastic measure of refusing the sacraments to all Canadian sj-mpathizers with the Colonial cause, preser\ed Canada to the British Crown. Later, Briand, who was in\-ited by Cardinal Castelli, the Prefect of the Propaganda, to administer confirmation in Pennsylvania and Marj-land, aban- doned the plan upon the protest of Father Ferdinand Steinmeyer, S. J. (popularly known as Father Farmer), who drew attention to the anti-Catholic feeling which was then prevalent in the Colonies.

In 1765 Briand published a "Catechism", the first book printed in Canada. He resigned his see in 1 784 and was the consecrator of his two successors: the Rt. Rev. Louis Philippe Marianchau d'Esglis, 29 Nov. 1784, who died 4 June, 1788; and the Rt. Rev. Jean Frangois Hubert, 19 Nov., 1786. Briand died after fifty-five years in the priesthood and twenty-eight in the episcopate.

Tetc. Lcs fieques de Quebec (Quebec, 1889); Br.vssecr de BorRBOuRG. HisloiTe du Canada (Paris, 1852); F.iillon, Hist, de la colonie fran^aise en Canada (Villemarie, 1865).

Lionel. Lindsay.

Bribery, the pajmient or the promise of money or other lucrative consideration to induce another, wliile under the obligation of acting without any view to private emolument, to act as the briber shall prescribe. Only the moral aspect of brit)ery will be touched upon here; the liistorical aspect of the ques- tion will be dealt with in the articles on the natiouo and countries.

The word is ordinarily used with reference to pay- ments or other lucrative consideration illicitly made in