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Rome from a diplomatic mission to Brazil. There were then but twelve churches on all Long Island and about 15,000 Catholics. During the thirty- eight years Bishop Loughlin ruled the see he built 125 churches and chapels, 93 schools, 2 colleges, 19 select schools and academies, 10 orphan asylums, 5 hospitals, 2 homes for the aged, a home for destitute boys, and the diocesan seminary. In the same time the Catholic population increased to nearly 400,000. Bishop Loughlin led a hfe of unostentatious routine, entirely devoted to his ecclesiastical duties. The only time he is recorded as having identified himself \\'ith any civic movement was in April, 1861, when he WTote a letter of sympathy and approval to the great mass-meeting of citizens that committed Brooklyn to the cause of the LTnion. In October, 1890, the golden jubilee of his ordination was cele- brated by a three days' festival in which the whole city joined. He assisted at each of the Plenary Councils of Baltimore and visited Rome four times, once to be present at the (Ecumenical Council of the Vatican. He was then made an assistant at the Papal throne. He died at his residence in Brooklyn, 29 December, 1891. That one man should have founded a diocese and in the course of his adminis- tration brought it to a position of such pronounced influence and efficiency, is one of the most remark- able facts in the history of the Church's progress in the L'nited States.

The Sisters of Charity were the fu-sf religious to establish themselves in Brooklyn (1834), and they were followed by the Christian Brothers in 1S51 and the Sisters of St. Dominic in 1852. To these Bishop Loughlin added the Sisters of the Visitation and the Sisters of Mercy in 18.55; the Sisters of St. Joseph, 18.56; the Franciscan Brothers, 1858; the Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis, 1866; tlie Congregation of the Mission, and the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, 1868; the Little Sisters of the Poor — their first foundation in the L'nited States — 1869; the Fathers of Mercy, 1871; the Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Mary, 1877; the Fathers of the Pious Society of Missions, 1884; and the Sisters of the Precious Blood, 1889.

Bishop Loughlin began the construction of a new ca- thedral of large dimensions in 1868, the work on which he carried on up to the first story and then stopped to give his attention to the promotion of the charit- able institutions of the diocese. The chapel of St. John, at one end of the proposed Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, was all that was ever fin- ished and used; the extensive foundation walls of the main building remain in their incomplete state. The Catholic Benevolent Legion, a fraternal insur- ance association, was organized during Bishop Lough- lin's life, September, 1881, and he was its first spir- itual director. The St. Vincent de Paul Society received from him special encouragement (1855), and the formation of the tliird Particular Council in the United States was a result.

(2) The Right Reverend Charles Edward McDon- nell, consecrated 25 April, 1892. Born in New York City, 1 February, 1854, his early education was re- ceived in the parochial schools and the De La Salle Academy. In 1868 he entered St. Francis Xavier's College, where he remained until he left, in 1872, to study for the priesthood at the American College, Rome. He was ordained in Rome, 19 May, 1878, and subsequently received tlie degree of Doctor of Di\nnity. Returning to New York, he was, after five years spent in parish work, made Secretary to Cardinal McCloskey. After the cardinal's death, Archbishop Corrigan left him in this position and appointed him chancellor as well. He was also made a private chamberlain by the pope, and was serving in these offices when Bishop Loughlin died. Named by the pope to succeed him, Mgr. McDonnell was consecrated the second Bishop of Brooklyn in St.

Patrick's Cathedral, New York, 25 April, 1892, and took possession of his see on the 2d of May. The new bishop, finding the material interests of the diocese so well administered by his predecessor, continued the good work thus begun and developed it also along its spiritual lines. The increase in population and the changes in the country districts necessitated the starting of many new parishes and the inception of new means and methods of meeting the polyglot needs of the representatives of the various nationalities that had settled in the diocese. For this Bishop McDonnell adopted the policy of securing members of some order for each of the races and languages in his jurisdiction. At his invitation foundations were made by the Redemp- torists in 1892; the Benedictines, 1896; the Fran- ciscans (Minor Conventuals), 1896; the Capuchins, 1897; the Fathers of the Congregation of Mary, 1903; the Franciscans (Italian), 1906; the Jesu- its, 1907; the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth, 1892; the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart, 1892; the Daughters of Wisdom, 1904; the Sisters of the Infant Jesus (nursing Sisters of the Sick Poor), 1906. Up to 1907 Bishop McDonnell had started and dedicated fifty new parislies and churches. He presided over the Third Diocesan Synod in Decem- ber, 1894, at which the full number of canonical diocesan officials were for the first time selected; and over the Fourth Synod, held in 1898. A unique spiritual event was a simultaneous mission under his inspiration held throughout the diocese to mark the close of the nineteenth century. He led three dio- cesan pilgrimages to Rome, the first for the General Jubilee of 1900; the second for the Silver Jubilee of Pope Leo XIII in 1902; and the third for the Jubilee of the Immaculate Conception in 1904. To the institutions of the diocese Bishop McDonnell added two hospitals and largely increased the capacity of one of those already established; the Ozanam Home for Friendless Women; the new St. Vincent's Home for Friendless Boys; two seaside recreation places for children and a trade school farm for orphans.

Notable Benep.\ctors and Workers. — Some of those distinguished for their zeal for religion and generosity to the Church in addition to tliose already mentioned have been: Judge Alexander McCue, Charles A. Hoyt, E. Louis Lowe (formerly Governor of Maryland), Hugh McLaughlin, Patrick C. Keeley (architect of many Catholic churciies in various parts of the country, who began his career here), James A. McMaster, for many years editor of "The Freeman's Journal", Patrick Vincent Hickey, editor of the "Catholic Review", Laurence Kehoe, Manager of the Catholic Publication Society, John George Gotts- berger, John Campbell, Andrew Dougherty, Kieran Egan, John O'Mahony, John D. Kieley, Jr., Jacob Zimmer. William W. Swayne, James Rorke, Edward Rorke, William H. Murtha, Anton Shimmel, Thomas Carroll, Joseph W. Carroll, Jolm Loughran, Dr. Dominick G. Bodkin, John Good, Peter McGoldrick, M. F. McGoldrick, Thomas W. Hynes, William R. Grace. WiUiam Bourke Coekran, Morgan J. O'Brien, Mrs. Grace Masury, Mrs. A. E. Walsh, Charles O'Conor Sloane, James McMahon, Bernard Earl, Michael Hennessy, Joseph Eppig, Edward Feeney, and Dr. John Byrne.

St.\tistics. — Diocesan priests 308; priests of re- ligious orders 54; total 362. Churches with resident priests 162, missions 10, stations 11, chapels 13; seminary 1, with 60 students; colleges 3, with 570 students; academies and select schools for young women 15, with 1017 pupils; parishes \vith schools 68, pupils enrolled 41,750; orphan asylums 11, in- mates 3691 ; infant asylums 4, inmates 455; industrial school 1, pupils 143; young people under Catholic care 40,040; hospitals 6, treating more tlian 18,000