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and Bayoime. A local tradition that dates back to the beginning of the twelfth century tells us that Taurinus, fifth Bishop of Eauze (Elusa), abandoned liis episcopal city, which liad been destroyed by the Vandals, and transferred his see to Auch. Eauze, in fact, probably remained a metropolitan see till about the middle of the nintli century, at which time, owing to the invasions of the Nortlimen, it was re- imited to the Diocese of Audi, which had existed since the fiftli century at least and then became an archdiocese. The first Bisliop of Auch known to history is the poet, St. Orientius (first half of the fifth century), m honour of whom a famous abbey was founded in the seventli centurj'. Cardinal Mel- chior de Polignac, author of the " Anti-Lucrcce," was Archbishop of Auch from 1725 to 1741. The cathe- dral of Sauite Marie, a Gothic structure with a Byzantine fa^'ade, is, in spite of this incongruity, very imposing; its fifteenth-century windows are said to be the most beautiful in France. The ancient episcopal sees of Condom and Lombez had a monastic origin. Bossuet was non-resident Bishop of Condom for two years (166S-71). At the end of the year 1905 the Archdiocese of Auch containcti 238,448 in- habitants; 29 parishes, 478 succursal or mission churches, and 61 vicariates.

Gallia Chriflinim (ed. Nova, 1715), I, 965-1010. 1325-30. and Documents, 159—172 and 202; Duchesne, Pastes cpiscopaux de Vaiicienne 'Gaule. II, 89-102; Montlezun, Vie' des saints ei'eques de Ui melropole dWuch (.\uch, 1S57); Chev.\lier, Topo-bibl. (Paris, 1894-99), 251-252.

Georges GoY.\n.

ArcH, Councils of. In 1068 a council of Auch decreed that, with a few exceptions, all churches should pay to the Cathedral of Audi one quarter of their tithes. M a coimcil lield in 1077 (near Cliovem- populania) William, -\rchbislio)) of Auch. was deposed by Gerald, legate of (iregory VII. In 1276 a council was held at .\uch in ilefence of ecclesiastical jurisdic- tion and immunities. In 1S51 a provincial council of Auch drew up a number of decrees concerning faith and doctrine, the hierarchy, public worship, and ecclesiastical studies.

M.^xsi, CoH. Cone.. XIX, 1003. XXV, 107, 217-281; Caz.ic- R.KN, Conciles et stfnodes du diocese d'Auch, in Revue de Gascogne (1878), XIX, 70-84; 112-126; CHEV.^LIER, Topo-bibl. (Paris, 1894-99) 251.

Auckland, Diocese of, comprises the Provin- cial District of Auckland (New Zealand), with its islets, and the Kermadec Group. Area, 21,665 square miles. On Trinity Sunday, 1S35, the Vicariate Apostolic of the Western Pacific was erected by Pope Gregory XVI. The Abb6 Jean Baptiste Fran- (^ois Pompallier was chosen as its first vicar. The territory under his jurisdiction comprised all New Zealand, the present Vicariates Apostolic of Fiji, Central Oceanica, British New Guinea, Dutch New Guinea, New Pomerania, (part of) Gilbert Islands New Caledonia, Navigators' Islands, New Hebrides, and the Prefectures Apostolic of North Solomon Is- lands and Northern New Guinea. The new vicar was consecrated in Rome, 30 June, and sailed from Havre. 24 December, 1836, accompanied by the Marist Fatliers Servant and Bataillon (Lyons), Chanel and Bret (Belley), and three lay-brothers. Fatlier Bret ched on the voyage. Father Bataillon (afterwards Vicar Apostolic of Central Oceanica) was left at Wallis Island, and Father Chanel (Blessed Peter Chanel, Protomartyr of Australasia) at Futuna. Dr. Pompallier and Fatlier Servant reached Hokiaiiga (Auckland Province) 10 Januan,', 1838, and were provided for by an Irish Catholic, Thomas Poynton. .\t that time there were probably fewer than 100 white Catliolics in all New Zealand. Other Marist Fathers arrived in 1839 and subsequent years. The missions to the aborigines (Maoris) became very suc- cessful, desiiite grave calumnies propagated by Wesleyan trader-missionaries. By April, 1846, about

5,000 had been baptized, "and there were about five or six times as many catechumens." In 1845 Dr. Pompallier changed his headquartei'S to Auckland. In 1848 Auckand and Wellington were erected into sees. The Marist Fathers were withdrawn to the Wellington diocese in 1850. The Rev. James Mc- Donald then became the principal missionary to the Auckland Maoris. The ilaori missions in New Zea- land were jxiralyzed by the series of native wars between 1843 and 1869. They were taken up in the Aucldand diocese by the Mill Hill Fathere, in 1880. The Sisters of Mercy were introduced in 1850. In 1868 Dr. Pompallier went to France, re- signed, and died in 1870. He was succeeded by Dr. Thomas William Croke (1870-74), afterwards Archbishop of Cashel. After five years, Father Walter Bis.schop Steins, S.J., was appointed to Auckland (1879-81). He was succeeded by Dr. John Edmund Luck, O.S.B. (1882-96). The Right Rev. George ilichael Lenihan, consecrated 15 No- vember, 1896, succeeded him.

St.\tistics. — At the census of 1901, the white population of the Auckland Provincial District was 175.938 (of whom 27,246 were Catholics); Maoris, 21,291. The population of the Kermadecs was eight, all non-Catholics. The official estimate of the total white population of the Auckland Pro\'incial District. 31 December, 1906, was 211,233; Catholic population of .\uckland Provincial District (which is coterminous with the Diocese of Auckland if the Ker- madec Islands be included), 32,272; population of the Kermadec Islands, five, all non-Catholics. According to " New Zealand Statistics. 1904 ", p. .503, there were in the .Auckland Provincial District, at the close of 1904, 37 Catholic schools, with 96 teacliers and 2,393 pupils. The following were the ecclesiastical statistics for April, 1906: .secular clergy, 26; Mill Hill Fathers, for native population, 9; for whites and natives, 7; Catholic Maoris, about 5,000; parochial districts, 29; churches, 79; Religious Brothers, Marists, 12; Sisters of Mercy, 97; Sisters of St. Joseph, 36; Sisters of the Mission, 30; Little Sisters of the Poor, 8; colleges and higli schools, 13; parochial schools, 25; orphan- ages, 2; home for the aged poor, 1; hospital. 1; children in Catholic schools, 2,600.

PoMP.vLLlER, Earh/ Hi-slonj of the Catholic Church inOceaiiiii (E. T.. .\ucklanil, 1888); C.^rdlval IIorax, History of the Catholic Church in Australasia (Sydney, no date); Marsham.. Christian Missions (New York, 1896); Netc Zealand Census, vol. 1901 (Wellington, 1902); New Zealand Statistics (Well- ington. 1905-06).

Henry W. Cle.vrv.

Auctorem Fidei, a Bull issued by Pius VI, 28 August. 1791, in condemnation of the GalHcan and Jansenist acts and tendencies of the Synod of Pistoia (1786). To understand its bearing, it is well to ob- serve that Leopold 11. Grand duke of Tuscany (1765- 90), pursued the ecclesia-stical policy of his brother, Joseph II of Austria; i. e. he practically arrogated to liimself supreme authority o\-er all ecclesiastical matters within his dominions. In 1785 he sent fifty- .seven articles to each bishop in the grand duchy, with orders to consider them in a diocesan synod, a.s a preliminary to a national synod, in which they were finally to be discussed. Scipio de' Ricci, Bishop of Pistoia, held his iliocesan synod, and approved not only the fifty-seven articles drawn up by order of Leopold, but added a mmiber of others of similar import. Among them were the following: All eccle- siastical authority comes directly from the members of the Church at large, whose commissioned minis- ters the pastors are. The pope is only ministerially head of the Church. Bishops do not depend on the pope for any jurisdiction in the government of their diocese. In diocesan synods parish priests have the same right of voting and deciding as the bishop. Reserved cases slioiild be abolished. Excommuni- cation has only an external effect. It is superstition