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the sky. Audiffredi took observations of the positions of the comet and published his results under the title, " Dimostrazione della stazione della conieta, 1769" (1770). A general taste and capacity for the natu- ral sciences distinguished this learned Dominican, but, like that of many savants, Audifiredi's life was one of retirement and obscurity.

H. De La.\k.

Audin, J.-M.-ViNCENT, b. at Lyons in 1793; d. in Paris, 21 Februarj', 1851. He first studied theology in the seminar}' of Argentiere, and afterwards pur- sued the study of law. He passed his law exam- ination but never practised lus profession, having decided to enter on a literary career. His first pub- lications were: "La lauterne magique" (ISll); " Blanc, bleu et rouge" (1814); "Tableau historique des ev^nements qui se sont accomplis depuis le retour de Bonaparte jusqu'au r^tablissement de Louis XVIII" (1815). He also contributed to the "Jour- nal de Lyon" founded by Ballanche. He soon left his native city and settled in Paris where he opened a bookstore and at the same time was active with his pen. He first published articles of a political cast, and historical tales in the style of the time, such as "Michel Morin et la Ligue"; "Florence ou la Religieuse "; "Le Regicide", and others. He then took up liistorical writing, his first work of this kind being "Le Concordat entre Leon X et FranQois I"" (1821), which is, for the most part, a translation of that document. This was followed by his " Histoire de la St. Barthelemy" (2 vols., 1826). These two works were fairly well received although some eccle- siastical critics accused him of being too favourable to the Protestants. Audin publicly defended him- self against this imputation, and asserted liis firm belief in the doctrines of the Cathohc Church. He now began his most important work, the historj' of the Protestant Reformation, which he published from 1839 to 1842 in four books, as follows: (1) " His- toire de la vie, des ouvrages et de la doctrine de Luther" (2 vols., Paris, 1839; 2d ed., 3 vols., 1850); (2) " Histoire de la vie, des ouvrages et de la doc- trine de Cah-in" (2 vols., 1841; 2d ed., 1851); (3) "Histoire de Leon X et de son siecle" (2 vols., 1844: 2d ed., 1851); (4) "Histoire de Henri VIII et du schisme d'Angleterre" (2 vols.. 1847; 2d ed., 1862). The author claims to have based his statements upon researches which he made in the archives of various European cities, especially in the arcliives of the \'atican. The work shows that this assertion can- not be accepted in its entirety. The volumes are written in a romantic manner, and contain many particulars which sober criticism has long proved to be false. DoUinger says of the work on Luther: " Audin 's work is written with an e.xtraordinary, and at times almost naive ignorance of Luther's writings and contemporary hterature, and of the general con- dition of Germany at that period" (Kirchenlex., s. V. Luther).

La Grande Encyclopedie, IV, 611.


Audisio, OuGLiELMo, b. at Bra, Piedmont, Italy, 1801; d. in Rome. 27 September, 1SS2. He was pro- fessor of sacred eloquence in the episcopal seminary of Bra, appointed presiding officer of the Academy of Superga (Turin) by King Charles .\lbert, but was expelled from this office because he was opposed to the irreligious politics of the Piedmontese Govern- ment. He then went to Rome, where Pius IX ap- pointed him professor of natural and popular rights in the Roman University, and Canon of the Vatican Basilica.

Audisio was a pious and charitable priest, and spent large sums in benevolent works. He was an excellent teacher of sacred eloquence, and his manual on the subject was translated into many languages

and frequently quoted approvingly. He also de- voted himself to historical studies, especiaUy in il- lustration of the papacy, bringing to them absolutely good intentions, assiduous industry, and much just and acute observation, such as was not then common in the circle which surrounded him. Nevertheless these historical labours had no great intrinsic value, especially at a time when so large a number of docu- ments were being published. For this reason they are no longer sought after by students.

Audisio had no deep insight into theology and law. and often displayed deplorable lapses on these sub- jects in his writings and his lectures. At the time of the Vatican Council he was accused of Gallicanism. to the great grief of his patron Pius IX, and his work on political and religious society in the nineteenth century was condemned by the Church. Audisio. however, was profoundly Catholic in feeling, and not only did he full}' submit to the condemnation of his book, but he warmly protested against the accusation of heterodoxy and disobedience. He was a fervent upholder of papal and Catholic rights against the political liberalism of Piedmont. He was one of the founders of the Catholic intransigeant paper, the ■' Arnionia of Turin. It was for this reason that he fell a victim to the anti-clerical influence which had deprived hini of his post at Superga.

But in Rome .\udisio united himself with that clique of liberal Italian ecclesiastics (such as Monsignor Liv- erani) who advocated reforms and concessions not al- ways just and often premature, and who professed doc- trines of little weight, sometimes false, often inexact. In this environment Audisio compromised himself, but his figure remains that of an extremely religious and charitable priest and of an eager student devoted to the Holy See and to the Church. Some pages of his works on the popes still merit consultation.

The works of Audisio are: "Lezioni di Eloquenza Sacra" (several editions); "Juris Naturae et Gentium Pubhci Fundamenta " (Rome, I.>o2); "Idea storica della diplomazia ecclesiastica " (Rome, 1864); "Storia religiosa e civile dei papi " (5 vols., Rome, 1860); "Sistema politica e rehgiosa di Federico II e di Pietro della Vigna" (1866); "Delia societa politica e reli- giosa rispetto al secolo XIX" (Florence, 1876), con- demned by decree of the Holy OfBce, April, 1877; "Vita di Pio IX".

Nuova Encidopedia Italiana (Suppl., I, 1889); Voct della Verila (Rome, 29 September, 1882).

U. Benigni.

Auditor, the designation of certain officials of the Roman Curia, whose duty it is to hear (Lat. audire) and examine the causes submitted to the pope. They cannot, however, give a decision unless they receive delegated jurisdiction. They are. therefore, not judges in the strict sense of the term. These oHicials have been part of the Roman Curia since the Middle Ages. Amongst the principal dignitaries bearing this title are: (1) Auditor Papce. This of- ficial was at first the adviser of the pope in consis- torial and theological matters, but he afterwards received also judicial power in civil and criminal eases. Since 1831, however, his duties are restricted to certain ecclesiastical affairs, such as assisting at the examinations of episcopal candidates for Italy and the transaction of matters relating to favours. etc. (2) Auditor Camera or Auditor General. This official originally had very extended powers, such as judging appeals against the decisions of bishops, and proceeding against bishops themselves in im- portant cases and even punishing them without a special commission from the pope. He could also take cognizance of all cases of civU, criminal, and mixed jurisdiction in the States of the Church. Nearly all these and similar powers have now been withdrawn, and the tribunal of the Camera Apos- tnlica is at present limited almost entirely to ex-