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he was eighty. His masterpiece is considered to be "The Rape of the Sabines ", after Poussin. Among his plates are portraits after Gobert — those of Louis XV, Vandyke, Coypel, Largilliere, Rigaud, Trevisani, and Vivien — and compositions after, among others, Rapliael, Rubens, the Caracci, Guido Reni, Domen- ichino, Pietro da Cortona, Albano, Maratta. Philippe de Champagne, Marot, Poussin, and Xattier. His son was Benoit the Younger.

I.ouis, the youngest son of Germain, b. at Lyons. 1670; d. in Paris, c. 1712, studied with his father and his uncle Gerard. He assisted his brothers, and did few original plates. A work of his to be noted is "The Seven Acts of Mercy, after Bourdon.

Be.voit the Younger, b. in" Paris, 1698; d. in the same place, 1772. was the last of the remarkable family to have any historical importance artistically. He was a pupil of his father and did plates after, among others, Veronese, Poussin, Watteau, Lancret, and Xatoire.

Pkosper Gabriel, a grandson of Jean, b. in Paris, 1744; d. 1S19; he studied with his uncle, Benoit the Younger, and etched some heads. He gave up art for the law and became professor of Hebrew in the College de France.

DuPLESSis, Le8 Audran; BrY-o;, Dictionary of Painters and Engravers,

Augustus van Cleef.

Auenbrugger (or vo.v .\uenbrugg), Leopold, an Austrian pliysician. b. 19 Nov.. 1722; d. 17 May. 1807. He was the inventor of perciLssion in physical diagno- sis and is considered one of the small group of men to whose original geniiLs modern medicine owes its pres- ent position. He was a native of Graz in StjTJa, an Austrian province. His father, a hotel-keeper, gave his son every opportunity for an e.xcellent preSnii- narj' education in liis native town and then sent him to Viemia to complete his studies at the univer- sity. Auenbrugger was gratluated as a physician at the age of twenty-two and then entered the Spanish Military Hospital of Vicuna where he spent ten years. His observations and experimental studies enabled him to discover that by tapping on the chest with the fmger much important information with regard to diseased conditions within the chest might be obtained.

Ordinarily, the lungs when percussed, give a soimd like a drum over which a hea\y cloth has been placed. When the lung is consohdated. as in pneumonia, then the sound produced by the tapping of the finger is the same as when the fleshy part of the thigh is tapped. Auenlirugger found that the area over the heart gave a modified, dull .sound, and that in this way the limits of heart -dullness could be determined. This gave the first definite infoniiation ■nith regard to pathological changes in the heart. During his ten years of patient study, Auenbrugger confirmed these observations by comparison \\\t\\ post-mortem specimens, and besides made a number of experi- mental researches on dead boches. He injected fluid into the pleural cavity, and showed that it was perfectly possible by percussion to tell exactly the Umits of the fluid present, and thus to decide when and where efforts should be made for its re- moval.

His later studies during this ten-year period were devoted to tuberculosis. He pointed out how to detect ca\-ities of the lungs, and how their location and size might be determined by percussion. He also recognized that information with regard to the contents of cavities in the lungs, and the conditions of lung tissue might be obtained by placing the hand on the chest and noting the \-ibration. or fremitus, produced by the voice and the breath. These obser- vations were published in a little book now considered one of the most important classics of medicine. It was called Inventum Novum", the full English


title runnmg, " A New Discoverj- that Enables the Physician from the Percussion of the Human Thorax to Detect the Diseases Hidden Within the Chest".

Like most medical discoveries, Auenbrugger's method of diagnosis at first met with neglect. Be- fore liis death, however, it had aroused the attention of Laennec, who, following up the ideas suggested by It, discovered auscultation. Since then, AuehbruggeV has been considered one of the great founders of modern medicine. He lived to a happy old age. especially noted for his cordial relations with the yoimger members of his profession, and for liis kindness to the poor and to those suffering from tuberculosis. He is sometimes said to have died in the typhus epidemic of 1798, but the burial register of the parish church in Vienna, of which he had been for half a centurj- a faithful member, shows that he did not die until 1807.

Leopou) .\uENBRrGGKR, Johresb. d. Ver. d. Aertzte in Sl<ier- mark (Graz. 1866); Merbach .A.rENBRrGGER. Jahresb. der iresellschart fur Natur und Heilkunde (Dresden, 1863); Walsh, Makers of Modern Medicine (New York, 1907).

James J. Walsh. Aufsees, Jobst Berxhard vox, canon of Bamberg and Wiirzburg, b. 28 March, 1671, on the family estate of .Mengersdorf; d. 2 April, 1738. He was baptized a Lutheran, but educated (1683-90) as a Catholic through the efforts of his uncle Carl Sigmund, canon of Bamberg and Wiirzburg. He was soon advanced to the same dignity in both churches, was provost of Bamberg in 1723, and held other officer of distinction in both cities. After 1709 he devoted the revenues of his benefices to the estab- lishment of a house of studies at Bamberg: in 1728 he bestowed upon it the sum of 400,000 gulden (about -5200,000). This Aufsees Seminarj-, or Institute, was destined for the reception of poor boys from the Dioceses of Bamberg and Wiirzburg. They were to be supported there during the entire time of their studies at the public academies. He originally in- tended to place the Jesuits in charge, but by his last will (17 February-, 1738) turned it over to the care of the cathedral chapters of Bamberg and Wiirzburg. It was opened in 1741, and continued its beneficent career until the beginning of the nineteenth century, when the secularization of the property of the ecclesiastical principalities took place. The edifice was then turned over to the hospital for incurables, and the revenues applied in part to scholarships (Stipendien). King Ludwig I reopened it as a house of studies (Konigliches Stiidiotxeminar) under governmental supervision. The director and the prefects are priests, but the Government appoints holders of the 42 free places and the 20 places for youtlis who pay, also the officers of the institute, and administers its revenues. WITTM.4XN in Kirchcnfex., I, 1615.

Thom.\s J. Shahax.

Auger, Edmoxd, b. 1530. near Troves; d. at Como, Italy, 31 January, 1591. one of thegreat figures in the stormy times in France, when the Calvinists were striving to get possession of the throne. He entered the Society of Jesus while St. Ignatius was still living, and was regarded as one of the most eloquent men of his time. Mathieu calls him the "Chrysostom of France". Wherever he went, throngs flocked to hear him, and the heretics them- selves were always eager to be present, captivated as they were by the charm of his wisdom and the delicacy of his coiu-tesy in their regard. His en- trance into France as a priest was in the city of Valence, where the bishop had jvist apostatized, and the Calvinists were then in possession. The efforts of Auger to address the people were followed by his being seized and sentenced to be burned to death. While standing on the pyre, he harangued