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WASHBURN

299

WASHINGTON

WASHBURN, GEORGE, an American educator; born in Middleboro, Mass., March 1, 1833; was graduated at Amherst College in 1855, and at Andover Theological Seminary in 1859; became Professor of Philosophy in Robert College, Constantinople, in 1868; was acting president there in 1870-1877, and became president in the latter year. He was an authority on the political questions of southeastern Europe. During the World's Parliament of Religions in Chicago, in 1893, he delivered an address on Mohammedanism. He contributed many articles to English and American periodicals. He died in 1915.

WASHBURN COLLEGE, a coeducational institution in Topeka, Kan.; founded in 1865 under the auspices of the Congregational Church; reported at the close of 1919: Professors and instructors, 40; students, 840; president, P. P. Womer, Sc. D.

WASHBURNE, ELIHU BENJAMIN, an American statesman; born in Livermore, Me., Sept. 23, 1816. He early tried journalism, but abandoned it to study law at Harvard; was admitted to the bar in 1840 and began practice in Galena, Ill. He was elected to Congress in 1852 and held office till 1869, when he was appointed Secretary of State by President Grant, and soon after minister plenipotentiary to France. During the Franco-Prussian War he made the American legation the refuge of Germans and other foreigners who could not leave Paris. For this service he received special honors from the Emperor of Germany and Bismarck, as well as from the French leaders, Gambetta and Thiers. In 1887 he published “Recollections of a Minister to France.” After he returned to the United States he resided in Chicago, where he died Oct. 22, 1887.

WASHINGTON, a State in the Western Division of the North American Union; bounded by British Columbia, Idaho, Oregon, Puget Sound, and the Pacific Ocean; admitted to the Union, Nov. 11, 1889; capital, Olympia; number of counties, 38; area, 69,127 square miles; pop. (1890) 349,390; (1900) 518,103; (1910) 1,141,990; (1920) 1,356,621.

Topography.—The surface of the State is exceedingly rugged, being traversed from N. to S. by the great range of the Cascade Mountains about 100 miles from the coast. The highest peaks, all extinct volcanoes, are Mount Rainier, 14,444 feet; Mount Baker, 10,827 feet; Mount St. Helena, 9,750 feet; and Mount Adams, 9,000 feet. Eastern Washington, lying between the Cascades and the Columbia river, includes the Yakima and Kittitas valleys, and is watered by the Columbia river and its tributaries; the Yakima, Snake, Spokane, Methow, and Okanogan rivers. Lake Chelan, in the center of the State, is 70 miles in length, and 3 miles wide. Western Washington has an abrupt slope to tide water, and contains a few fertile prairies and much broken mountain land. It contains Puget Sound Basin, Shoolwater Bay, and the Lower Columbia valley. Puget Sound extends inland about 80 miles and contains many excellent harbors. The Pacific coast has numerous prominent headlands, including Capes Disappointment and Flattery. The Principal rivers of western Washington are Des Chutes, Puyallup, Duwamish, White, Black, Cedar, Lummi, Skagit, Swinamish, Skokomish, and Snohomish.

Geology.—The Cambrian, Silurian, Eozoic, Tertiary, and Cretaceous periods are all represented in the mountains of the W. portion of the State. The N. part, the Blue Mountains and the Coast are of the Eozoic period, and the central portion is a volcanic formation.

Mineralogy.—Washington is called the Pennsylvania of the Pacific on account of its mineral wealth, especially in coal, in the Puget Sound basin. Gold is found in the Yakima valley, and silver near Spokane. The chief mineral products are gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc. The production of coal in 1919 was 3,100,000 tons, which was 982,000 tons less than the production of the previous year. The production of copper was 2,210,350 pounds. The production of gold in 1919 was about 13,000 fine ounces, valued at $285,000. The production of silver was 316,028 fine ounces, valued at $354,220. Other important mineral products are granite, sandstone, marble and limestone, clay products, cement, antimony and tungsten. The total value of the mineral production is over $15,000,000 annually.

Agriculture.—The river valleys and plains of eastern Washington have under scientific irrigation become exceedingly fertile and productive. Stock raising and dairy farming are becoming important industries. The acreage, value and production of the principal crops, were as follows: corn, 45,000 acres, production 1,620,000 bushels, value $2,997,000; oats, 320,000 acres, production 12,800,000 bushels, value $11,904,000; barley, 138,000 acres, production 4,140,000 bushels, value $5,589,000; wheat, 2,440,000 acres, production 40,100,000 bushels, value $85,814,000; hay, 794,000 acres, production 1,906,000 tons, value $43,838,000; potatoes, 58,000 acres, production 7,250,000 bushels, value $10,512,000.