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TURGITE

37

TURKESTAN

a volume of poems; "The Conversation" (1845); "The Landlord" (1846); "Three Portraits" (1846) ; "Khor and Kalinych" (1847); "The Bully" (1847); "Dimitri Rudin" (1852) ; "Two Friends" (1853) ; "Quiet Life" (1854); "Rudin" (1856); "Faust"(1856) ; "Asya" (1858) ; "A Nest of Noblemen" (1859), also translated as "Lisa"; "First Love" (1860); "Hamlet and Don Quixote" (1860) ; "On the Eve" (1862) ; "Fathers and Sons" (1862) ; "Visions" (1863); "The Dog" (1863?); "Story of Lieutenant Jergunov" (1864) ; "The Brigadier" (1866) ; "Smoke" (1867) ; "An Unfortunate" (1868) ; "A Strange Tale" (1869) ; "A King Lear of the Steppe" (1870); "Knock! Knock! Knock!" (1870); "Pegasus" (1871); "Chertopchanov's End" (1872) ; "Punin and Baburin" (1874) ; "The Living Skeleton" (1875); "The Watch" (1875); "Some One Knocks" (1875) ; "The Dream" (1876); "New" (1877), also translated as "Virgin Soil"; "Father Alexei's Story" (1877) ; "Song of Triumphant Love" (1881); "The Old Portraits" (1882) ; "The Despairing One" (1882) ; "Poems in Prose" (1882) ; "Klara Milich" (1883) ; "The Conflagration at Sea" (1883). He died in Bougival, near Paris, Sept. 3, 1883.

TURGITE (after the Turginsk copper mine, near Bogoslovsk, Urals, where first observed), a common iron ore frequently mistaken for limonite, to which it bears a strong resemblance; occurs in fibrous masses, sometimes botryoidal and stalactitic, also earthy; hardness, 5-6; sp. gr, varying according to texture, but ranging between 3.56 and 4.681; luster, submetallic and satiny when seen at right angles to the fibers, also dull in the earthy varieties; color, reddish-black to dark-red; streak, red; opaque. Composition: Sesquioxide of iron, 94.7, water, 5.3—100, which yields the formula 2Fe2O2, H2O. Found frequently associated with limonite, but is easily distinguished by the color of its streak.

TURGOT, ANNE ROBERT JACQUES, a French statesman; born in Paris, France, May 10, 1727. He was educated for the Church, but renouncing this purpose he studied law, and in 1761 was appointed intendant at Limoges, which post he occupied for 12 years. Shortly after the accession of Louis XVI. in 1774 Turgot was appointed comptroller-general of France, and in order to reform the political and financial condition of the country, he moderated the duties on articles of the first necessity, freed commerce from many fetters, and encouraged industry by enlarging the rights of individuals, and abolishing the exclusive privileges of companies and corporations. Such, however, was the opposition of the clergy and nobility to his reforms that he was dismissed from office in 1776, and retired into private life. He died in Paris, March 20, 1781.

TURIN, a city of north Italy; capital of a province of the same name; at the confluence of the Dora Ripera with the Po, and between these two rivers. The city is essentially modern, the streets being broad and regular and many of them are lined with arcades, while there are numerous wide squares and gardens. The chief buildings are the cathedral, a renaissance building, completed in the beginning of the 16th century, and remarkable for its marble facade; the royal palace, a plain brick building, which contains the king's private library, with valuable MSS., and the royal armory; the university, a fine edifice recently constructed, in which there is a large library; the Palazzo dell' Accademia delle Scienze, with a picture gallery and museums of natural histories and antiquities; the Palazzo Carignano, used at one time by the Sardinian and Italian Parliaments when they met here (1848-1865), and now given up to a collection of natural history; the Madama Palace, an old and interesting building, and several theaters. The environs of the city are beautiful, and offer many objects of interest. Among the educational establishments, in addition to the university, which is attended by over 2,000 students, are an episcopal seminary, a royal military academy, a polytechnic school, and various other colleges and schools. The manufactures consist, besides the staple of silk, chiefly of woolens, cottons, linens, paper, iron mongery, earthenware, and porcelain. Turin in recent years has become one of the chief manufacturing cities of Italy. Turin was anciently the capital of a tribe called the Taurini, and under the Roman empire was called Augusta Taurinorum. It was long the capital of Savoy, then of the Sardinian kingdom, and from 1861 to 1865 of United Italy. Pop. about 450,000.

TURKESTAN ("land of the Turks"), the name of a wide, longitudinal, depressed region in central Asia, which comprises the basins of the Amu-Darya and the Tarim; separated on the S. by the Kuen-Lun from Tibet, by the Karakorum (Mustagh) and Hindu Kush from India and Ladak, the latter chain continuing W. in the mountains of Afghanistan and Persia. In the N. it is separated from Zungaria and the Russian