a volume of poems; "The Conversation"
(1845); "The Landlord" (1846); "Three
Portraits" (1846) ; "Khor and Kalinych"
(1847); "The Bully" (1847); "Dimitri
Rudin" (1852) ; "Two Friends" (1853) ;
"Quiet Life" (1854); "Rudin" (1856);
"Faust"(1856) ; "Asya" (1858) ; "A Nest
of Noblemen" (1859), also translated as
"Lisa"; "First Love" (1860); "Hamlet
and Don Quixote" (1860) ; "On the Eve"
(1862) ; "Fathers and Sons" (1862) ;
"Visions" (1863); "The Dog" (1863?);
"Story of Lieutenant Jergunov" (1864) ;
"The Brigadier" (1866) ; "Smoke"
(1867) ; "An Unfortunate" (1868) ; "A
Strange Tale" (1869) ; "A King Lear
of the Steppe" (1870); "Knock! Knock!
Knock!" (1870); "Pegasus" (1871);
"Chertopchanov's End" (1872) ; "Punin
and Baburin" (1874) ; "The Living Skeleton"
(1875); "The Watch" (1875);
"Some One Knocks" (1875) ; "The
Dream" (1876); "New" (1877), also
translated as "Virgin Soil"; "Father
Alexei's Story" (1877) ; "Song of Triumphant
Love" (1881); "The Old Portraits"
(1882) ; "The Despairing One"
(1882) ; "Poems in Prose" (1882) ;
"Klara Milich" (1883) ; "The Conflagration
at Sea" (1883). He died in Bougival,
near Paris, Sept. 3, 1883.
TURGITE (after the Turginsk copper
mine, near Bogoslovsk, Urals, where first
observed), a common iron ore frequently
mistaken for limonite, to which it bears
a strong resemblance; occurs in fibrous
masses, sometimes botryoidal and stalactitic,
also earthy; hardness, 5-6; sp.
gr, varying according to texture, but
ranging between 3.56 and 4.681; luster,
submetallic and satiny when seen at
right angles to the fibers, also dull in the
earthy varieties; color, reddish-black to
dark-red; streak, red; opaque. Composition:
Sesquioxide of iron, 94.7, water,
5.3—100, which yields the formula
2Fe2O2, H2O. Found frequently
associated with limonite, but is easily distinguished
by the color of its streak.
TURGOT, ANNE ROBERT JACQUES,
a French statesman; born in Paris,
France, May 10, 1727. He was educated
for the Church, but renouncing this purpose
he studied law, and in 1761 was
appointed intendant at Limoges, which
post he occupied for 12 years. Shortly
after the accession of Louis XVI. in
1774 Turgot was appointed comptroller-general
of France, and in order to reform
the political and financial condition
of the country, he moderated the duties
on articles of the first necessity, freed
commerce from many fetters, and encouraged
industry by enlarging the
rights of individuals, and abolishing the
exclusive privileges of companies and
corporations. Such, however, was the
opposition of the clergy and nobility to
his reforms that he was dismissed from
office in 1776, and retired into private
life. He died in Paris, March 20, 1781.
TURIN, a city of north Italy; capital
of a province of the same name; at the
confluence of the Dora Ripera with the
Po, and between these two rivers. The
city is essentially modern, the streets
being broad and regular and many of
them are lined with arcades, while there
are numerous wide squares and gardens.
The chief buildings are the cathedral,
a renaissance building, completed in the
beginning of the 16th century, and remarkable
for its marble facade; the
royal palace, a plain brick building,
which contains the king's private library,
with valuable MSS., and the royal armory;
the university, a fine edifice recently constructed,
in which there is a
large library; the Palazzo dell' Accademia
delle Scienze, with a picture gallery
and museums of natural histories
and antiquities; the Palazzo Carignano,
used at one time by the Sardinian and
Italian Parliaments when they met here
(1848-1865), and now given up to a collection
of natural history; the Madama
Palace, an old and interesting building,
and several theaters.
The environs of the city are beautiful,
and offer many objects of interest.
Among the educational establishments,
in addition to the university, which is
attended by over 2,000 students, are an
episcopal seminary, a royal military
academy, a polytechnic school, and various
other colleges and schools.
The manufactures consist, besides the
staple of silk, chiefly of woolens, cottons,
linens, paper, iron mongery, earthenware,
and porcelain. Turin in recent
years has become one of the chief manufacturing
cities of Italy. Turin was anciently
the capital of a tribe called the
Taurini, and under the Roman empire
was called Augusta Taurinorum. It was
long the capital of Savoy, then of the
Sardinian kingdom, and from 1861 to
1865 of United Italy. Pop. about
TURKESTAN ("land of the Turks"), the name of a wide, longitudinal, depressed region in central Asia, which comprises the basins of the Amu-Darya and the Tarim; separated on the S. by the Kuen-Lun from Tibet, by the Karakorum (Mustagh) and Hindu Kush from India and Ladak, the latter chain continuing W. in the mountains of Afghanistan and Persia. In the N. it is separated from Zungaria and the Russian