'replacing the able Thesiger by the incompetent Chelmsford.' There had been friction between him and Sir Henry Bulwer, the lieutenant-governor of Natal, as to the raising and employment of native levies; and the government decided to send out Sir Garnet Wolseley to supersede them both. Wolseley landed at Durban on 28 June, and joined the first division at Port Durnford on 7 July. He disapproved of the plan of operating with two widely separated forces. Chelmsford accordingly moved southward to St. Paul's mission station, and met Wolseley there on 15 July, On the 27th he left Durban for England. He was mentioned in Wolseley's despatch (Lond. Gaz. 10 Oct. 1879) as entitled to all the merit of the victory of Ulundi. He had been made K.C.B. on 11 Nov. 1878, and received the G.C.B. on 19 Aug. 1879, also the medal with clasp.
He became lieutenant-general on 1 April 1882, and general on 16 Dec. 1888. Prom 4 June 1884 to 29 March 1889 he was lieutenant of the Tower of London. On 7 June 1893 he was placed on the retired list. He had received the G.C.V.O. on 22 Aug. 1882, and been made colonel of the 4th (West London) volunteer battalion of the king's royal rifle corps on 27 Aug. 1887. He was given the colonelcy of his old regiment (the Derbyshire) on 30 Jan. 1889, and was transferred to the 2nd life guards on 27 Sept. 1900. He died on 9 April 1905, at the United Service Club, having had a sudden seizure while playing billiards there. He was buried with military honours at Brompton cemetery, his grave being next to his father's. He was well described by the duke of Cambridge in 1879 as 'a gallant, estimable and high-principled man, generous to others, unsparing of himself, and modest withal.' (Verner, ii. 165.)
A portrait of him by Harris Brown is in the mess of the 2nd life guards, and another by the same artist is in the possession of his widow. A cartoon portrait appeared in 'Vanity Fair' in 1881.
He married on 1 Jan. 1867 Adria Fanny, eldest daughter of Major-general John Heath of the Bombay army. She survived him, and he left four sons, of whom the eldest, Frederick John Napier, third Baron Chelmsford, was governor of Queensland (1905-9) and afterwards of New South Wales.
[The Times, 10 April 1905; Official Narrative of the Zulu War, 1881; Further Correspondence on the affairs of South Africa, presented to parliament, 1878 (5 parts), 1879 (12 parts); John Martineau, Life of Sir Bartle Frere, 1895; Willoughby C. Verner, Life of the Duke of Cambridge, 1905; Sir Evelyn Wood, From Midshipman to Field-Marshal, 1906.]
THOMAS, WILLIAM MOY (1828–1910), novelist and journalist, born in Hackney, Middlesex, on 3 Jan. 1828, was younger son of Moy Thomas, a solicitor. William's uncle, J. H. Thomas, co-author with the boy's father, of 'Synopsis of the Law of Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes' (1814), and also editor of 'Coke upon Littleton' (3 vols. 1818), took charge of the boy's education. But William soon left the study of the law to follow Literature as a profession. He became private secretary to Charles Wentworth Dilke [q. v.], proprietor of the 'Athenæum.' In 1850 he was introduced by Sir Thomas Noon Talfourd [q. v.] to Charles Dickens, who engaged him next year as a writer on 'Household Words,' to which he contributed down to 1858. He commenced to write criticisms in political philosophy for the 'Athenæum' in 1855, and contributed on literary history and political economy to 'Chambers's Journal,' the 'North British Review,' the 'Economist,' and other journals. His first book was an edition of the 'Poetical Works of William Collins' (1858), with notes and a useful biography. In the same year a series of able papers by him in 'Notes and Queries' established the facts about the biography of Richard Savage [q. v.]. In 1861 appeared his valuable edition of 'The Letters and Works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, edited by Lord Wharncliffe; third edition, with additions and corrections derived from the original MSS., illustrative notes and a new memoir’ (2 vols.; reprinted in Bohn's Series, 1887, 2 vols., and in 1893). In 1866-7 he was London correspondent of the New York 'Round Table' under the signature of 'Q,' and in 1868 he joined the staff of the 'Daily News,' writing the weekly article 'In the Recess' and the dramatic criticisms. He also wrote leading articles, reviews, and descriptive sketches for that newspaper down to 1901. He was the first editor of 'Cassell's Magazine,' in which appeared 'A Fight for Life' (3 vols. 1868), an excellent novel, which was dramatised. He was honorary secretary of the Authors' Protection Society (1873), and was instrumental in procuring the royal commission on copyright which reported in 1878 (John Hollingshead, My Lifetime, 1895, ii. 54-56). He was dramatic