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a great degree both the principles and the disposition of his father, and was thus inclined to ‘demean himself frowardly’ when the true interests of Ireland were threatened by the government. In December 1605 he was brought before the council at Dublin on the charge of having contrived the petition of the lords and gentlemen of the Pale in favour of those persons who had refused to comply with the enactment requiring attendance at the protestant church on Sundays. He denied having been the contriver of the petition, but on account of his ‘obstinate and indecent manner of defending it’ (ibid. (1603–6), p. 447) was regarded as having been more deep in the offence than he who first wrote it. He was therefore retained in prison, and ultimately was sent to England, where he was committed to the Tower. On account of illness he was, however, first ‘enlarged to his own lodgings,’ and on 31 Dec. 1606 he was sent to Ireland upon bond to appear before the lord deputy and council within four days to make his submission. While in London he was supposed to have acted as the agent of the recusants in obtaining a relaxation of the law, but whether this was so or not, his spirited resistance to it had made it practically a dead letter, and no attempt was ever again made in Ireland to enforce attendance at church through a fine in the council chamber. In 1613 he strongly opposed the creation of new boroughs in Ireland ‘as being designed only to pass votes’ (ibid. (1611–14), p. 395), and on this account was summoned to England to answer to the council. He died on 11 Jan. 1622. His son Nicholas [q. v.] became Viscount Kingsland.

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, v. 44–8; Gardiner's History of England (1883), i. 395–9, ii. 288; Cal. State Papers, Irish Series, vols. from 1574 to 1625.]

T. F. H.

BARNEWALL, RICHARD VAUGHAN (1780–1842), barrister-at-law, fourth son of Robert Barnewall, of London, merchant, by Sophia, daughter of Captain Silvester Barnewall (uncle of Robert Barnewall), began his education at Stonyhurst College, continued it under Dr. Collins, and completed it at the university of Edinburgh, was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1806, having previously read in the chambers of Blick, an eminent special pleader, and for some years practised at the Surrey sessions and on the home circuit. In 1817 he turned his attention to reporting in the court of King's Bench, and was thenceforth mainly occupied with that important and laborious branch of legal business until his retirement from professional labour in 1834. In this work he was successively associated with (1) Alderson, afterwards baron of the exchequer, between 1817 and 1822, (2) Cresswell, afterwards justice of the common pleas, between 1822 and 1830, (3) Adolphus, between 1830 and 1834. In the latter year, having succeeded to some property on the death of his relative, the Baroness de Montesquieu, he retired from active life, when bar and bench concurred in testifying their high sense of his character and abilities—the former presenting him with a silver vase, the latter with a testimonial. The reports—which comprise the whole of the period during which Lord Tenterden presided in the court of King's Bench, as well as the last year of Lord Ellenborough's, and the first two of Lord Denman's presidency there—are of great value, by reason both of the importance of the decisions recorded therein, and of the accuracy with which they are recorded. Barnewall died at his chambers in the Temple 29 Jan. 1842, and was buried in Paddington churchyard. He was never married. His father, Robert Barnewall, is said by Sir Bernard Burke to have been lineally descended from Sir Nicholas Barnewall, created in 1461 chief justice of the common pleas in Ireland. The baronies of Trimleston and Kingsland were held by different members of this family.

[Annual Register, 1842, p. 247; Gent. Mag. N.S. xvii. 331; Ann. Biog. (C. R. Dodd), pp. 34–7; Burke's Peerage; Burke's Extinct Peerage; Lodge's Peerage of Ireland (Kingsland title).]

J. M. R.

BARNEY, JOSEPH (1751–1827), fruit and flower painter, was born at Wolverhampton. At the age of sixteen he came to London and studied under Zucchi and Angelica Kauffmann. He gained a premium at the Society of Arts in 1774, and whilst quite young was appointed drawing master at the Royal Military Academy. He held this post for twenty-seven years. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1786. He dealt at first with classical, and afterwards with religious subjects; later he painted domestic life, and sank finally to flower painting in the service of the prince regent. His last time of exhibiting was in 1827.

[Redgrave's Dict. of Painters of the English School.]

E. R.

BARNFIELD, RICHARD (1574–1627), poet, was the son of Richard Barnfield, gentleman, and Maria Skrimsher, his wife. He was their eldest child, and was born at Norbury, Shropshire, where he was baptised on