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from which, however, he recovered sufficiently to take part in the opening ceremony. Alter this, with the exception of a plan for stacking timber in dockyards, which he submitted to the admiralty, Brunel undertook no more professional work. In 1845 he was again attacked by paralysis, but lingered on for four years. He died on 12 Dec. 1849, in his eighty-first year, and on the 17th of the same month was buried in Kensal Green cemetery.

Brunel was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in March 1814, and in 1832 was made a vice-president under the presidency of the Duke of Sussex. In 1841, shortly before the completion of the Thames tunnel, he was knighted. He was a corresponding member of the French Institute, and received in 1829 the order of the Legion d'Honneur. He was also elected a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Stockholm, and of various other scientific societies abroad. In 1823 he became a member of the Institute of Civil Engineers, and constantly attended their meetings, and gave accounts of the progress of his works. He served some years on the council, and aided the advancement of the society by every means in his wer. In 1839 he was awarded the Telford silver medal for his account of the ‘shield’ employed in the construction of the Thames tunnel. His communications to the society will be found in the published ‘Proceedings,’ vols. i. ii. iii. xiii. xvii.

[Proceedings Inst. Civil Engineers. x. 78, and i. 5, 23, 33, 41, 46, 48, 85, ii, 29, 80, iii. xiii. xvii.; Beamish's Memoir of the Life of Sir Marc I. Brunel.]

R. H.

BRUNING, ANTHONY (1716–1776), jesuit, eldest son of George Bruning of East Meon and Foxfield, Hampshire, by his first wife, Mary, daughter of Christopher Bryon of Sussex, was born on 7 Dec. 1716. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1733; became a professed father in 1751; laboured for some years on the English mission; and was afterwards appointed professor of philosophy at Liège, where he died on 8 Aug. 1776. He wrote manuscript treatises, ‘De Gratia,’ ‘De Deo,’ and ‘De Trinitate.'

[Oliver's Collections S. J. 62; Foley’s Records S.J. v. 816, vii. 99; Backer's Bibl. des Ecrivains de la Compagnie de Jésus (1869), 913.]

T. C.

BRUNING, GEORGE (1738–1802), Jesuit, was the youngest son of George Bruning of East Meon and Foxfield, Hampshire, by his second wife, Anne, daughter of Thomas May of Ramsdale in the same county. He was born in Hampshire on 19 Sept. 1738; entered the Society of Jesus in 1756; served the mission of Southend, Scberton, Hampshire, for some years: and afterwards lived at East Hendred, Berkshire, the seat of Thomas John Eyston, who had married his half-sister, Mary Bruning. Retiring to Isleworth, he died there on 3 June 1802. Bruning published: 1. ‘The Divine Œconomy of Christ,' London, 1791, 8vo. 2. ‘Remarks on the Rev. Joseph Berington‘s Examination of Events termed miraculous, as reported in Letters from Italy, addressed to the public,’ London, 1796, 12mo.

[Oliver’s Collections S, J. 62; Foley's Records S. J. v. sn, vii. 100; Backer's Bibi. des Ecrivains de la Compagnie de Jésus (1869), 913.]

T. C.

BRUNNE, ROBERT de, or {sc|Mannyng}}. [See Mannyng.]

BRUNNING, BENJAMIN (fl. 1664), nonconformist divine, son of the Rev. John Brunning, rector of Semer in Suffolk, was baptised on 8 Oct. 1623. He received his academical education at Jesus College, Cambridge, where he was admitted to a fellowship on 5 May 1645. He was ejected in 1662, and became a nonconformist minister at Ipswich. The following is the account given of him by Calamy (Ejected Ministers, li. 645): ‘Mr. Benjamin Brunning was fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge; one of great usefulness there, and of a general reputation in the university for his wit and learning. Hewasamsn of large and deep thoughts, and his grovince required it; he having the most judicious persons in the town and country, both ministers and people, for his audience.' He was author of the following sermons: 1. ‘A Sermon preached at an Election of Parliament Men, in a Critical Time,’ on James iii. 17, 1660, 4to. 2. ‘Against Impositions and Conformity, from the Second Commandment.'

[Clutterbuck’s Hertfordshire, iii. 321 n ; Addit. MS. 5853 f. 177, 19165 f. 227; Pa.lmer's Non-conformists’ Memorial, iii. 271.]

T. C.


BRUNTON, GEORGE (1799–1836), Scottish lawyer and journalist, was born on 31 Jan. 1799, and was educated at the Canongate High School, Edinburgh. He was admitted a solicitor in 1831; and in the following year, with Mr. David Haig, brought out ‘An Historical Account of the Senators of the College of Justice, from its Institution in mdxxxii,' 8vo, Edinburgh and London, 1832. This volume, which was at first