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never published. In February 1806 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Jennings, a farmer near Penryn, who survived her husband. They had several children, Leicester Silk [q. v.] being their youngest son. An engraved portrait of Buckingham will be found in the first volume of the ‘Autobiography.’ The following is a list of the chief of Buckingham's published works. He also wrote some thirty-seven pamphlets on social and political subjects.

  1. ‘Travels in Palestine, through the countries of Bashan and Gilead,’ &c., 1822, 4to.
  2. ‘Travels among the Arab Tribes inhabiting the East of Syria and Palestine,’ &c., 1825, 4to.
  3. ‘Travels in Mesopotamia,’ &c., 1827, 4to.
  4. ‘Travels in Assyria, Media, and Persia,’ &c., 1830, 4to.
  5. ‘Parliamentary Report on the Extent, Causes, and Consequences of the Prevailing Vice of Intoxication,’ &c., 1834, fol.
  6. ‘Parliamentary Report on the Causes of the Increased Number of Shipwrecks,’ &c., 1836, fol.
  7. ‘Evils and Remedies of the Present System of Popular Elections,’ &c., 1841, 12mo.
  8. ‘America: Historical, Descriptive, and Statistic, including a Journey through the Northern or Free States,’ 3 vols., 1841, 8vo.
  9. ‘The Slave States of America,’ &c., 2 vols., 1842, 8vo.
  10. ‘The Eastern and Western States of America,’ 3 vols., 1842, 8vo.
  11. ‘Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and other British Provinces of North America,’ &c., 1843, 8vo.
  12. ‘Transactions of the British and Foreign Institute, including Reports of all the Papers read, Lectures delivered, and Discussions held at the Meetings of that Society in 1843–4–5,’ 1845 (?), 4to.
  13. ‘Tour through Belgium, the Rhine, and Holland,’ 2 vols., 1845, 8vo.
  14. ‘Tour through France and Italy,’ &c., 2 vols., 1847, 8vo.
  15. ‘Outline Sketch of the Voyages, Travels, Writings, and Public Labours of James Silk Buckingham. Compiled from authentic sources,’ 1848, 8vo.
  16. ‘National Evils and Practical Remedies,’ 1849, 8vo.
  17. ‘An Earnest Plea for the Reign of Temperance and Peace,’ &c., 1851, 12mo.
  18. ‘The Coming Era of Practical Reform,’ &c., 1854, 8vo.
  19. ‘Autobiography of James Silk Buckingham,’ vols. i. and ii., 1855, 8vo.

[Autobiogr. of James Silk Buckingham, 2 vols., 1855; Biographical Sketch of James Silk Buckingham from Lives of the Illustrious for August 1853 (1853); Gent. Mag. 1855, new ser. xliv. 322–3; Ann. Reg. 1855, p. 289; advertisement of Buckingham's works in The Coming Era for May 1854; Brit. Mus. Cat.]

G. F. R. B.

BUCKINGHAM, LEICESTER SILK (1825–1867), dramatic author, the youngest son of James Silk Buckingham, the oriental traveller [q. v.], and Elizabeth Jennings, was born at 11 Cornwall Terrace, Regent's Park, London, 29 June 1825. In his early life he was the companion of his father in visits made to America, France, and the East, and the experience thus acquired rendered his services valuable as a lecturer on several occasions. When the Panopticon (afterwards the Alhambra in Leicester Square) was originated in 1854 as a scientific institution, Buckingham was selected to write and deliver the explanatory description of the views of various countries, and more recently at the Egyptian Hall he was the lecturer engaged to illustrate Hamilton's ‘Tour of Europe.’ Connecting himself in early life with the stage he produced several light pieces at the Strand Theatre when that establishment was under Mr. J. Payne's direction in 1856–7, and for a short time undertook the responsibilities of management. Among the most successful comedies he afterwards wrote may be mentioned ‘The Merry Widow,’ 1863; ‘Silken Fetters,’ 1863; ‘The Silver Lining,’ 1864; and ‘Faces in the Fire,’ 1865. As a dramatist he was confessedly under large obligations to the French stage, and the majority of his pieces were founded on the works of Parisian writers. There can, however, be no question that his talents were equal to much more than the work of a skilful adapter. He was from 1857 to 1867 dramatic and musical critic of the ‘Morning Star.’ A singularly fluent and graceful writer he was even more remarkable as a speaker, and few have excelled him in rhetorical power. Buckingham commenced writing at the early age of nineteen, when he compiled for R. Bentley ‘Memoir of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland,’ 1844. This was followed by ‘Life and Times of Louis Philippe, by the Rev. G. N. Wright. Continued to the Revolution of 1848 by L. F. A. Buckingham,’ 1850. ‘Belgium, the Rhine, Italy, Greece, and the Mediterranean, by the Rev. G. N. Wright and L. F. A. Buckingham,’ appeared in 1851, and in 1853 he published ‘The Bible in the Middle Age, with Remarks on the Libraries, Schools, and Religious Aspects of Mediæval Europe.’ He was also the author of upwards of thirty-five burlesques, comedies, and farces, of which those already mentioned are the best, and are still occasionally produced on the stage. On 5 April 1844 he married at Gretna Green, under the name of L. S. F. Y. Buckingham, Caroline Sarah, fourth daughter of Captain Frederic White, of H.M.'s packet service Weymouth. This lady was afterwards a well-known and much respected actress, under the name of Mrs. Buckingham White. Few persons can have been known under a greater variety of chris-