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an interpreter, with a salary of 75l. a year. After this he entered the service of Captain William Lonsdale, who came from Sydney in September 1836, singular to say, with a detachment of the 4th, Buckley's old regiment. He also acted as a constable, and accompanied Governor Sir Richard Bourke in a short expedition he made while visiting Port Phillip in 1837. In November of this year he took part in the search for the missing settlers, Messrs. Gellibrand and Hesse, who were lost in proceeding from Geelong to Melbourne. Finding that he was not trusted as he thought he should have been, Buckley left Port Phillip 28 Dec. 1837, and passed over to Van Diemen's Land, where he was made assistant-storekeeper of the Immigrants' Home, and subsequently gatekeeper at the Female Nursery. He held the latter employment until 1852, when he was put on a pension of 12l. a year, to which the government of Victoria added an annuity of 40l. This income he enjoyed until his death, 2 Feb. 1856, which resulted from his being thrown out of a cart.

[John Morgan's Life and Adventures of William Buckley (1852), with portrait; Francis P. Labilliere's Colony of Victoria (1878), ii. 64–87.]

G. C. B.

BUCKMAN, JAMES (1816–1884), geologist, son of John Buckman, born at Cheltenham in 1816, was educated privately. After serving as pupil to a surgeon-apothecary at Cheltenham, he studied chemistry, botany, and geology in London; afterwards lectured at the Cheltenham Philosophical Institution; in 1846 was appointed curator and resident professor at the Birmingham Philosophical Institution, and from 1848 to 1863 was professor of geology and botany at the Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester. In 1863 he retired to a farm at Bradford Abbas, Dorsetshire, which he conducted on scientific principles, and became a recognised authority on all matters connected with agriculture. Buckman died at Bradford Abbas on 23 Nov. 1884. He wrote on the Cheltenham Spa, on the geology, botany, and archæology of the neighbourhood, 1842; on the ‘Flora of the Cotteswolds,’ 1844; and on the ‘Geology of the Cotteswolds,’ 1845; on the ‘Ancient Straits of Malvern;’ on the ‘Remains of Roman Art,’ 1850; a ‘History of British Grasses,’ 1858; and ‘Science and Practice in Farm Cultivation,’ 1863. He also contributed papers to the ‘Proceedings of the British Association for the Advancement of Science,’ to the ‘Geological Society's Transactions,’ to the journals of the Royal Agricultural Society and the Bath and West of England Society, and to Martin's ‘Cyclopædia of Agriculture.’ His botanical papers chiefly dealt with the subject from an agricultural point of view. In geology he devoted himself to the palæontology and stratigraphy of the Jurassic series in his own districts. Buckman presented collections of Roman antiquities and fossils to Cirencester, the latter to the college, and the former to the Corinium Museum there.

[Men of the Time, 11th ed. 1884; Geological Soc. Quarterly Journal, xli. 43.]

S. L. L.

BUCKMASTER, THOMAS (fl. 1566), divine and astronomer, is described in one of his works as a professor of physics, of what university has not been ascertained. He published: 1. ‘An Almanack and Pronostication,’ 1566–7, printed by Wanley. 2. ‘Tho. Buckmaster, minister, his right Christian Calendar; or Spirituall Prognostications made for the yeare 1570,’ by Hacket (Herbert's Ames). 3. ‘A new Almanack and Prognostication for the year 1575, wherein is expressed the Chang of the Moon … by Tho. Buckmaster, professor of physics’ (Tanner). 4. Commendatory Verses in ‘Wharton's Dreame,’ 1578; together with other almanacks, of which notices will be found in Herbert's ‘Ames's Typographical Antiquities.’

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), 729, 896, 917, 1025, 1094; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 137.]

W. H.

BUCKMASTER, WILLIAM (d. 1545), vice-chancellor of Cambridge University, graduated at Peterhouse, Cambridge, B.A. in 1513–14, M.A. in 1517, B.D. in 1525, and D.D. in 1528. In 1517 he was elected fellow of his college. He thrice served the office of vice-chancellor (1529, 1538, and 1539), and was twice elected Lady Margaret professor of divinity (1532 and 1534). He became rector of Barchester, Warwickshire (23 April 1530), fellow of King's Hall (1532), prebendary of Hereford (1539), and of St. Paul's Cathedral, London (1541). He died shortly before 14 Sept. 1545, but his effects were not administered (by his nephew, Hugh Buckmaster) until 5 Dec. 1546.

As vice-chancellor in 1529–30, Buckmaster took a prominent part in preparing the replies to the questions preferred by Henry VIIIto the university relative to his divorce. After much discussion, convocation resolved that marriage with a brother's wife was contrary to divine law, but the university declined to express any definite opinion as to whether the pope had power to permit such a marriage. This answer was not what the king desired, but Buckmaster was selected to carry it to Windsor and announce to Henry VIII