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stating the problem of satisfactorily lighting underground workings. The indirect result of this paper was the evolution of the safety-lamp through more or less cumbrous forms, until it reached the comparative perfection of the lamps designed respectively by George Stephenson, Dr. Clanny, and Sir Humphry Davy. Buddle himself assisted actively in the experiments in connection with the Davy lamp, and upon its completion introduced it successfully at the collieries under his charge, which, with the growth of his professional reputation, had greatly increased in number. In 1815 an accident at one of these collieries, Heaton Main, through the sudden influx of water from some old workings, led him to consider the need of preserving a more systematic record of mine-workings, and several years later he embodied these views in a paper contributed to the ‘Transactions’ of the Natural History Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, proposing that the society should be made ‘a place of deposit for the mining records of the district.’ Buddle has thus the distinction of having prepared the way for the establishment of the Mining Record Office in its present completeness. Outside the range of his own profession he showed remarkable intellectual activity; besides his connection with the society mentioned above, of which he was one of the chief promoters, he actively interested himself in founding schools in the colliery villages with which he was connected. Of undertakings other than those specially belonging to his profession, the most important was the building of Seaham harbour for the Marquis of Londonderry, who had conceived the idea of transferring thither the trade from the port of Sunderland. As a colliery manager and mining engineer Buddle attained by degrees to an almost autocratic eminence, as his popular sobriquet, ‘the King of the Coal Trade,’ testifies, and it says much for the genuineness of his character that at the height of his social prosperity he still remained on terms of affectionate intimacy with the mining folk about him, using the native vernacular with a force and humorous unction that have made some of his sayings almost proverbial in the district. Although over eight hundred lives are said to have been lost in the mines under his charge, he showed a tender regard and sympathy for the suffering which greatly strengthened the esteem in which his workpeople held him. Directly and indirectly, indeed, no one has done more than he to increase the safety of the miner at his dangerous work, and he was the first to propound the necessity of the miners' permanent relief fund, which now forms so important a part in the economy of coal-mining. In the wider aspects of his profession Buddle showed a scientific interest that had valuable results; his geological investigations have a more than merely practical value, and his paper entitled ‘A Synopsis of the Newcastle Coalfield,’ read, as finally completed, before the British Association on its visit to Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1838, proves the originality and comprehensiveness of his scientific knowledge. In religion Buddle was a unitarian. He never married. He died 10 Oct. 1843 at Wallsend, and was buried at Benwell six days later in characteristic north-country fashion, the funeral having a vanguard of sixty gentlemen on horseback, while seventy carriages and a vast multitude of miners afoot followed the hearse. In spite of his generosity and his noted hospitality he left a considerable fortune.

[Memoir published in the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle in a series of biographical papers entitled ‘Northern Worthies.’ See also Latimer's Local Records of Northumberland, &c., under the date of Buddle's death. For his various contributions upon mining and other subjects, the Transactions of the societies mentioned above and also of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne may be consulted; and in the Life and Works of Sir Humphry Davy will be found proof of Buddle's connection with the invention of the safety-lamp.]

E. P. R.

BUDGE, EDWARD (1800–1865), theological and general writer, was the son of John Budge, and was a native of Devonshire. He was educated at Saffron Walden, Essex, and was admitted at Christ's College, Cambridge, on 14 March 1820, when twenty years old. In 1824 he took the degree of B.A., and in the same year was ordained deacon by the bishop of Exeter. After holding several curacies in the west of England, he was instituted in 1839 to the small living of Manaccan, Cornwall, and remained there until 1846, when he was appointed by the bishop of Exeter to the more valuable rectory of Bratton Clovelly, North Devon. He died at his rectory on 3 Aug. 1865, aged 65. At his death his family was left without any provision for their support. In the hope of raising some money for their necessities, the Rev. R. B. Kinsman, the vicar of Tintagel, published, in 1866, a collection of ‘Posthumous Gleanings’ from Budge's study and from the essays which he had contributed to the ‘Saturday Review.’

Budge was a learned theologian and a skilled geologist. For Dr. Pusey's ‘Library of the Fathers’ he translated the ‘Homilies of St. John Chrysostom on the Statues,’ and his scientific knowledge was shown in the numerous articles which he supplied to the