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secondary (Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj. ii. 117, 554; Wendover, Chron. ii. 164). Orderic states that Edith, better known as Matilda, Henry's queen, was crowned by Gerard (Ord. Vit. 784 A), but other authorities, with greater probability, assign both the marriage and the ‘hallowing to queen’ to Anselm. A week later the death of Archbishop Thomas, 18 Nov., placed the northern primacy at Henry's disposal, and he without delay conferred it on Gerard. A conflict between the two primatial authorities once more broke out. Anselm, as primate of all England, demanded Gerard's profession. Gerard claimed exemption as a brother primate. It was essential, however, that Gerard should obtain the pallium from Rome, and for this purpose letters from Anselm substantiating his claim were necessary. On applying for them, he was told that he must either make his profession at once or promise to make it on his return. Gerard evasively replied that ‘when he came back he would do all that could be justly demanded of him.’ Anselm professed himself satisfied, and furnished Gerard with the necessary letters to Pope Paschal (Anselmi, Epist. lib. iii. ep. 48). Gerard also carried one from Henry himself.

The dispute about investiture was then running high. The decision was to be submitted to the pope. Each party was to be represented. Anselm sent two monks, Henry three prelates, of whom the new archbishop was the chief, the other two being Robert of Chester (i.e. Lichfield) and Herbert de Losinga of Norwich, both men of very questionable respectability (Church, Essays, p. 205). Gerard, clever and unscrupulous, with much reputation for learning, pleaded his royal master's cause with so much ability, that he was openly complimented by Paschal and the whole curia. The pallium was conferred on him, and he and his companions returned bearing sealed letters to Anselm and the king. Both missives refused the king's demands and peremptorily required him to submit to the papal see. But Gerard and his companions asserted that the pope had secretly assured them that so long as Henry acted as a good king, the decrees about investitures would not be enforced. Anselm's deputies denied any such assurance. The solemn word of Gerard and his episcopal companions, however, was held to outweigh the testimony of two ‘paltry monks.’ Paschal when appealed to repudiated in the most solemn terms the alleged understanding, and placed Gerard and the other bishops under sentence of excommunication until they had confessed their crime and made satisfaction (Eadmer, pp. 132, 140, 145, 151; cf. Anselmi Epist. lib. iii. ep. 131).

Eventually the required profession of canonical obedience to Anselm was made by Gerard, though so tardily that more than one letter was despatched by Paschal before it was rendered. The last of these, dated 12 Dec. 1102, arrived after the profession had been made, and remained unopened and unread (Anselmi Epist. iii. 131; Eadmer, p. 173; Anglia Sacra, ii. 170). Although Thomas Stubbs, eager for the privileges of the see of York, vehemently repudiates the story (Twysden, p. 1710 B), we may safely accept the well-authenticated statement that Gerard laid his hand upon that of Anselm, with the promise that he would exhibit the same obedience he had paid him when bishop of Hereford (Eadmer, p. 187; Flor. Wig. ii. 56; Gervas. Cantuar. ii. 375; Sym. Dunelm ii. 239; Hoveden, i. 164). Gerard, however, continued to assert the co-ordinate dignity of the two primatial sees, and at the important council held at Westminster, September 1102 (if we may credit the tale told by Thomas Stubbs), indignantly kicked over the lower seat which had been prepared for him with a curse, ‘in the vulgar tongue, on the head of the author of such an indignity,’ and refused to take his place except on a level with his brother primate (Twysden, ib.)

The next year Gerard again came into open collision with Anselm. Three bishops were awaiting consecration, William Giffard [q. v.] to Winchester, the famous Roger [q. v.] to Salisbury, and Reinhelm [q. v.] to Hereford. On Anselm's refusal to consecrate the latter two as having received investiture from the king, Henry commanded Gerard to perform the rite. Gerard consented. Reinhelm, shrinking from so gross an infringement of the rights of Canterbury, refused to accept consecration at Gerard's hands. Giffard, who had already received investiture from Anselm, appeared on the day of consecration in St. Paul's Cathedral, but when the ceremony had begun he interrupted the service, and openly repudiated Gerard's pretensions. The assistant bishops thought it prudent to proceed no further, and the assembly broke up in confusion. Roger, who stood awaiting consecration, left the cathedral as he entered it, a simple priest (Eadmer, p. 69; Flor. Wig. p. 1103; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj. ii. 122; Hist. Angl. i. 191). During Anselm's three years of exile Gerard devoted himself to re-establishing discipline in his vast diocese, not yet recovered from the Conqueror's devastations. Gerard's conduct displeased Paschal, who in an objurgatory letter took him severely to task for the support he had given to the king against the primate. The indulgence of the holy see had been heavily taxed and would not be