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his own hands, and he employed numerous carvers to carry out his designs. Among them were Selden, who lost his life in saving the carved room at Petworth from a destructive fire; Watson, who executed most of the famous carvings at Chatsworth; Henry Phillips, who worked with Gibbons at Whitehall; and others. In statuary he was assisted by Dyvoet of Mechlin and Laurens of Brussels, who executed the statue of James II at Whitehall; and by Arnout Quellin of Antwerp in various works. The pedestal of Charles I's statue at Charing Cross, so often attributed to Gibbons, was executed by Joshua Marshall, master-mason to the king, possibly from Gibbons's designs. Gibbons was master-carver in wood to the crown from the time of Charles II to that of George I, and also held an office in the board of works. He resided from 1678 in Bow Street, Covent Garden; in January 1701 his house fell down, but fortunately none of the family were injured (Postman, 24 Jan. 1701). He died in the house rebuilt there on 3 Aug. 1720, and was buried on 10 Aug. in St. Paul's, Covent Garden; his wife had been buried there on 30 Nov. 1719. They had nine or ten children, all baptised at St. Paul's, including five daughters, one of whom, Catherine, married Joseph Biscoe, and was buried at Chelsea, 23 Jan. 1731–2, leaving two sons. Another daughter, Elizabeth, had administration of her father's effects granted to her on 7 Sept. 1721; she was then unmarried. Gibbons's portrait was painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller (formerly at Houghton, now at St. Petersburg), and, with his wife, by Closterman; both were engraved in mezzotint by John Smith. Evelyn describes Gibbons, when he first met him, as ‘likewise musical, and very civil, sober, and discreete in his discourse.’

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Dallaway and Wornum; Evelyn's Diary; Builder, 1862; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. iii. 504, 573, 606, iv. 43, 63, 106, 259; Audit Office Declared Accounts in Publ. Rec. Off. (giving prices of various works); Cunningham's Lives of British Painters, Sculptors, and Architects; information from Mr. A. W. Gibbons and Mr. G. A. Rogers; authorities quoted in the text.]

L. C.

GIBBONS, JOHN, D.D. (1544–1589), jesuit, born at or near Wells, Somersetshire, in 1544, was sent to Oxford in 1561, and became a member, as Wood surmises, of Lincoln College, but left the university without taking a degree, and proceeding to Rome spent seven years in the German College there, and in 1576 was created doctor of philosophy and divinity. Afterwards Gregory XIII collated him to a canonry in the collegiate church of Bonn in Germany. In 1578 he entered the Society of Jesus at Trèves, eventually became rector of the jesuit college there, and was ‘much admired by all for his great humility, gravity of manners, zeal, and charity, and, above all, for his admirable regimen of that house’ (Wood, Athenæ Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 555). He died on 3 Dec. 1589, while on a visit to the monastery of Himmelrode, near Trèves.

He was the author of ‘Concertatio Ecclesiæ Catholicæ in Anglia, adversus Calvino-Papistas et Puritanos, a paucis annis singulari studio quorundam hominum doctrina et sanctitate illustrium renovata,’ Trèves, 1583, 8vo. Some of the lives of the martyrs in this valuable historical and biographical work were written by John Fenn [q. v.] The work was afterwards greatly enlarged by John Bridgewater [q. v.], the latinised form of whose name is Aquepontanus. An account of its multifarious contents will be found in the Chetham Society's ‘Remains,’ xlviii. 47–50.

Southwell asserts that Gibbons was the real author of ‘Confutatio virulentæ Disputationis Theologicæ, in qua Georgius Sohn, Professor Academiæ Heidelbergensis, conatus est docere Pontificem Romanum esse Antichristum a Prophetis et Apostolis prædictum,’ Trèves, 1589, 8vo; but it is distinctly stated on the title-page that John Aquepontanus, or Bridgewater, was the author.

[De Backer's Bibl. des Écrivains de la Compagnie de Jésus (1869), col. 2116; Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 146; Foley's Records, iv. 480, vi. 526, vii. 298; Gillow's Bibl. Dict. i. 295, ii. 245, 437; Lansd. MS. 96, art. 25, 26; More's Hist. Missionis Soc. Jesu, p. 19; Morris's Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, ii. 19 seq.; Oliver's Catholic Religion in Cornwall, p. 312; Oliver's Jesuit Collections, p. 103; Pits, De Angliæ Scriptoribus, p. 788; Southwell's Bibl. Script. Soc. Jesu, p. 453; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 315.]

T. C.

GIBBONS, ORLANDO (1583–1625), musical composer, was the son of William Gibbons, who was admitted one of the ‘waits’ of Cambridge on 3 Nov. 1567. Orlando was born at Cambridge in 1583, and in February 1596 entered the choir of King's College. His elder brother, Edward [q. v.], was organist and master of the choristers during the whole time the boy was in the choir. The first entry of the name (spelt ‘Gibbins’) in the list of choristers is in the account for commons for the eighth week after Christmas 1595, from which time the name appears regularly in the weekly lists until the second week after Christmas 1597, when it is placed at the top of the list as that of the senior chorister. The name is again found, only in a single entry, in the list for the third week after Michael-