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in the local newspapers. About 1810 Gilbert acquired information which led him to believe that he might claim descent from the Gilberts of Compton Castle, Devonshire, and under that persuasion he applied himself to the study of antiquities, genealogy, heraldry, and the collateral sciences, which ultimately led him to undertake a general history of Cornwall. Henceforth in his journeys through Cornwall he took notes of all he saw and heard, and also made his travellers collect information respecting local occurrences. After 1812 he was accompanied in several of his annual excursions in Cornwall by Henry Perlee Parker, since well known as an historical painter, who aided him by his pencil. After years of assiduous labour the first volume appeared in 1817, bearing the title of 'An Historical Survey of the County of Cornwall, to which is added a Complete Heraldry of the same, with numerous Woodcuts,' 592 pages. The second volume came out in 1820, 962 pages, and is generally found bound in two parts, the latter commencing after the conclusion of the heraldry at p. 373, where a half-title is found embellished with a view of St. German's Church, and the words 'Historical and Topographical Survey of the County of Cornwall.' As a parochial history, taken as a whole, it is an admirable work, and is still one of the best and most useful of the numerous books on Cornwall. Copies are seldom met with, and when found command high prices. In the majority of instances the twenty-five engraved plates of coats of arms are wanting. During the progress of the 'Historical Survey' Gilbert appears to have neglected his business, and, although he was patronised by successive dukes of Northumberland, and obtained a number of subscribers, the work cost double the estimate, and on 29 Oct. 1825 he was gazetted a bankrupt. In the following year he removed to London, where, taking Gilbert Morrish into partnership, he opened a chemist's shop at 27 Newcastle Street, Strand. Here he was interviewed by the Rev. John Wallis (Wallis, Cornwall Register, 1847, p 312); and died at the same address 30 May 1831, being buried in the churchyard of the Savoy, where a head-stone was erected to his memory.

[Notes and Queries, 4th ser. ix. 141; Journ. Royal Inst. of Cornwall, 1879, pp. 343-9, by Sir J Maclean; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. pp. 173. 1194; Davies Gilbert's Hist, of Cornwall, 1838, i. xiii-xiv.]

G. C. B.

GILBERT, CLAUDIUS, the elder (d. 1696?), ecclesiastic, was nephew of Henry Markham, a colonel employed in Ireland under the Commonwealth. Gilbert officiated as a nonconformist or independent clergyman in Ireland. Under the civil establishment of the Commonwealth in 1655 he received an annual allowance of 200l. as minister for the precinct of Limerick. In that town he actively opposed the quakers, who in 1656 endeavoured to propagate their doctrines there, with a zeal which led to their expulsion by the governmental authorities. In 1657 Gilbert published at London, 'The Libertine School'd, or a Vindication of the Magistrates' Power in Religious Matters; in answer to some fallacious quaeries scattered about the City of Limerick, by a nameless author, about the 15th of December, 1656; and for detection of those mysterious designs so vigorously fomented, if not begun, among us by Romish engineers, and Jesuitick emissaries, under notionall disguises.' This publication, dated from Gilbert's study in Limerick, 22 Dec. 1656, was dedicated to Henry Cromwell, commander-in-chief of the forces, and his council for the affairs of Ireland. The signature of Gilbert stands first among those clergymen who, as 'servants in the ministry of the gospel,' presented an address to Henry Cromwell, lord deputy, in Dublin in May 1658. In that year 'Gilbert published at London, 'A Soveraign Antidote against Sinful Errors, the Epidemical Plague of these latter dayes; extracted out of divine records, the dispensatory of Christianity for the prevention and cure of our spiritual distempers.' This was dedicated to Colonel Henry Ingoldsby, governor of the precinct of Limerick and Clare, under date of 23 Jan. 1656. In 1658 Gilbert also published at London 'The Blessed Peace-maker and Christian Reconciler; intended for the healing of all unnatural and unchristian divisions in all relations; according to the purport of that divine oracle announced by the Prince of Peace himself.' This treatise, dated at Limerick 23 March 1656, was dedicated to Major-general Sir Hardress Waller and his wife Elizabeth. A fourth treatise by Gilbert was issued at London in the same year, entitled 'A pleasant Walk to Heaven through the New and Living Way which the Lord Jesus consecrated for us and His sacred Word reveals unto us.' The date, Limerick, 19 May 1657, is appended to the 'epistle dedicatory' to the author's uncle, Colonel Henry Markham, and his wife Esther. On the title-pages of his above-mentioned works Gilbert is designated 'bachelor of divinity and minister of the gospel at Limerick in Ireland.' In 1659 the commissioners of the revenue in Ireland were directed by government to provide a house for Gilbert while preaching in Dublin. After the Restoration Gilbert appears to have be-