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which was published by Robert Ware in his ‘Foxes and Firebrands,’ Dublin, 1681, from the original found among Archbishop (James) Ussher's manuscripts. Philip ‘Corwine’ was nephew to Hugh Curwen, archbishop of Dublin [q. v.]

[Sir James Ware's Works, ed. Harris, i. 96, 331; Mant's Hist. of the Church of Ireland, i. 311, 315; Cotton's Fasti Ecclesiæ Hibernicæ, ii. 41, 180, 348, iii. 19, 116, 127, 157, 183, v. 89, 198; Stuart's Hist. of Armagh, p. 263; Dublin University Calendar, 1876, ii. 160.]

B. H. B.

GARWAY, Sir HENRY (1575-1648), lord mayor of London. [See Garraway.]

GASCAR, HENRI (1635–1701), portrait-painter, born at Paris in 1635, came to England about 1674 in the train or at the invitation of Louise de Keroualle, duchess of Portsmouth. Gascar (or Gascard, as he seems to have spelt his name at first) was already known as a skilful portrait-painter; among the portraits already painted by him was that of N. de Lafond, known as ‘le gazetier Hollandais,’ painted in 1667, and engraved by P. Lombart. The patronage of the Duchess of Portsmouth insured Gascar a rapid success in England. He exceeded Lely in the simpering affectation shown by his portraits of the ladies of Charles II's court, and in the lavishness with which he concealed his artistic deficiencies by sumptuous draperies and tawdry adornments. For a short time he became the fashion, and he is said to have amassed a fortune of over 10,000l. Some time before 1680 he was shrewd enough to see that his success was merely due to a fashionable craze, and he retired to Paris before this had entirely ceased. Among the portraits painted by him during this time in England were Charles II (engraved by Vanderbank), Louise, duchess of Portsmouth (twice; once engraved by Baudet), Barbara, duchess of Cleveland, and her daughter, Barbara Fitzroy, Charles Lennox, duke of Richmond, Frances Stuart, duchess of Richmond, George Fitzroy, duke of Northumberland, Nell Gwyn, Sophia Bulkeley (engraved by Dunkarton), Edmund Verney, and Philip Herbert, earl of Pembroke. It is stated that the last-named portrait was done by stealth for Louise, duchess of Portsmouth. A portrait by Gascar of James II as duke of York was in that king's collection (see Bathoe's catalogue). At Strawberry Hill there was a picture by Gascar apparently emblematic of the Restoration (see sale catalogue, twenty-second day, No. 95). On his return to Paris Gascar was elected a member of the academy there on 26 Oct. 1680. He subsequently went to Rome, where he enjoyed a high reputation, and died there 1 Jan. 1701, aged 66. About 1698 he painted a portrait of Joseph Ferdinand, the young son of Maximilian II, which was engraved at Munich by Zimmermann. A number of mezzotint engravings done from portraits by Gascar, but bearing no engraver's name, have been attributed to Gascar himself. There is no evidence that he really engraved them, but the inscriptions indicate the work of a foreigner. They are interesting as being among the earliest specimens of mezzotint engraving done in England.

[Dussieux's Artistes Français à l'Etranger; Mariette's Abecedario; Chaloner Smith's British Mezzotinto Portraits; De Piles' Lives of the Painters; Strutt's Dictionary of Engravers.]

L. C.

GASCOIGNE, Sir BERNARD (1614–1687), military adventurer and diplomatist, whose real name was Bernardo or Bernardino Guasconi, belonged to an ancient family settled at Florence, where he was born in 1614, being son of Giovanni Batista di Bernardo Guasconi and Clemenza di Lorenzo Altoviti. When he was four months old he lost his father, and he was brought up under the care of his maternal uncle, Alessandro Altoviti. He became one of the men-at-arms in the service of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and distinguished himself in an action in Casentino, from which place he took his title on being made a nobleman of the province. Afterwards in his capacity as a uomo d' arme he served in Lombardy, Piedmont, and Germany. Then, coming over to England, he took up arms for Charles I. He obtained a commission in Colonel Nevil's regiment of horse, and on 4 Aug. 1644, when the king was at Liskeard, he surprised and captured a party of parliamentarian officers while they were carousing in Lord Mohun's house, which was within two miles of the Earl of Essex's headquarters. In 1647 he drew up for the instruction of Ferdinand II, grand duke of Tuscany, an account of the recent occurrences in England. He had the command of one of the regiments of horse which took possession of Colchester on 12 June 1648, bore a part in the ineffectual attempt made on 15 July to break through the beleaguering forces, and was taken prisoner when the town was surrendered to Fairfax on 28 Aug. He was condemned to be shot on the following day with Sir Charles Lucas and Sir Charles Lisle. His life was spared at the last moment, because the council of war feared that if they shot a distinguished foreigner their friends or children who visited Italy ‘might pay dear for many generations’ (Clarendon, Hist. of the Rebellion, bk. xi.) On 3 Dec. 1649 Charles II renewed to him a