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of Virginia,’ cites a speech of Captain John Smith in 1621, wherein it is affirmed that Gates afterwards went to the East Indies and died there. From a list of shareholders in the English state paper office it appears that in 1623 fifty great shares, or five thousand acres of land in the colony of Virginia, stood in his name as owner. Nothing is known of his later career. His son, Captain Gates, served in the expedition of 1626 to Cadiz, and the next year at the Isle of Ré and Rochelle; at the latter place he was killed by a cannon-shot. Ten years afterwards his sisters petitioned the privy council for payment of the arrears due on his account, and the lord treasurer was authorised by the council to sign an order to that effect. The petitioners alleged that they were ‘destitute of means to relieve their wants, or to convey themselves to Virginia, where their father, Sir Thomas Gates, Governor of that Isle [sic], died, and left his estate in the hands of persons who had ever since detained the same.’

[A Discovery of the Barmudas, otherwise called the Ile of Divels: by Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Sommers, and Captayne Newport, with divers others. Set forth for the love of my country, and also for the good of the plantation in Virginia. By Sil. Jourdan, London, 1610; Purchas his Pilgrimage, or Relations of the World and the Religions observed in all Ages, London, 1625–6; Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 4th ser. vol. ix., Boston, 1871; Justin Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, vol. iii.; Metcalfe's Knights; Bryant and Gay's Popular History of the United States; Appleton's Cyclopædia of American Biography.]

G. B. S.

GATFORD, LIONEL (d. 1665), royalist divine, a native of Sussex, was educated at Jesus College, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow. He proceeded B.A. in 1620–1, M.A. in 1625, and B.D. in 1633, was elected junior university proctor in 1631, and during the same year became vicar of St. Clement's, Cambridge. At Cambridge he was greatly shocked at the mild heresies of Dr. Eleazar Duncon [q. v.], and wrote a long letter on the subject to Lord Goring, 22 July 1633 (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1633–4, pp. 150, 279). In 1637 he was presented by Sir John Rous to the rectory of Dennington, Suffolk. Soon after the outbreak of the civil war Gatford retired to Cambridge in order to write a pamphlet setting forth the doctrine of the church in regard to the obedience due to kings. On the night of 26 Jan. 1642–3 Cromwell seized his manuscript, then in the press at Cambridge, arrested Gatford in his bed at Jesus College, and sent both author and copy to London. On 30 Jan. the commons ordered him to be imprisoned in Ely House, Holborn (Commons' Journals, ii. 953). Nothing daunted he contrived to publish in the following March a vigorous onslaught on anabaptists and other false teachers, called ‘An Exhortation to Peace: with an Intimation of the prime Enemies thereof, lately delivered in a Sermon [on Psalm cxxii. 6], and newly published with some small Addition,’ 4to, London, 1643. This was ordered by the commons on 3 July to be referred to the consideration of the committee for Cambridge (ib. iii. 153). After seventeen months' confinement Gatford was, upon an exchange of prisoners, set free, but was not allowed to return to Dennington, or to take duty elsewhere. He therefore went to Oxford, where he was kindly received by the mayor, Thomas Smith, in whose house he wrote, while the plague was raging, a whimsical tract, called ‘Λόγος Ἀλεξιφάρμακος or Hyperphysicall Directions in Time of Plague. Collected out of the sole authentick Dispensatory of the chief Physitian both of Soule and Body, and disposed more particularly … according to the method of those Physicall Directions printed by Command of the Lords of the Councell at Oxford, 1644,’ &c. 4to, Oxford, 1644. Gatford soon after went to Cornwall as chaplain of Pendennis Castle (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661–2, p. 65). About July 1645 he drafted an address to Cornishmen (Cal. Clarendon State Papers, i. 271–2). In 1647 he was minister at Jersey, and there became a great favourite of Sir Edward Hyde, who made him his chaplain (ib. i. 316, 368, 416, ii. 19). His next publication was ‘Englands Complaint: or a sharp Reproof for the Inhabitants thereof; against that now raigning Sin of Rebellion; but more especially to the Inhabitants of the County of Suffolk. With a Vindication of those Worthyes now in Colchester,’ 4to, London, 1648. He fears that parliament will grant toleration to catholics, who will consequently return to power. He appears to have remained in exile about seven years. After his return he supported himself by taking boarders, and resided at different times at Kenninghall Place, Sanden House, Kilborough, and Swaffham in Norfolk. Thence he removed to Hackney, Middlesex, afterwards to Well Hall, Kent, and finally to Walham Green. He was much tormented by the county committees for persisting in keeping up the service of the church of England, and protested in ‘A Petition for the Vindication of the Publique use of the Book of Common Prayer from some foul … aspersions lately cast upon it. … Occasioned by the late Ordinance for the ejecting of