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2 vols.), but his opinions on colonial matters were severely criticised. About this period Howitt and his wife became believers in spiritualism, but, as in the case of their friends Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall, their regard for the Christian religion did not diminish (see The Pyschological Review, 1882 v. 36, 293, 410, 510, 1883 vi. 13, 88; A. M. H. Watts, Pioneers of the Spiritual Reformation, 1883, pp. 157-325). Settling at West Hill Lodge, Highgate, in 1857, Howitt continued his indefatigable literary labours, and occupied much of his leisure in arranging séances with D. D. Home [q. v.] (Spiritual Mag. February 1860 and October 1861; Home, Incidents in my Life, 1863,p.189). He contributed to the 'Spiritual Magazine' upwards of a hundred articles describing his personal experiences. On 19 June 1865 he received a pension from the civil list of 140l. a year. Between 1856 and 1862 he wrote five large volumes of a 'Popular History of England' (from the reign of Edward II) for Messrs. Cassell, Petter, & Galpin, which passed through seven editions. It was sold originally in weekly numbers, and reached a circulation of a hundred thousand. Lord Brougham and Dr. Robert Chambers highly commended it. From 1866 to 1870 he lived at The Orchard, near Esher. In 1870 he settled at Rome, where on 16 April 1871 he celebrated his golden wedding. During the summer he lived at Dietenheim in the Tyrol, returning to Rome for the winter and spring. At Rome he interested himself in the formation of a Society for the Protection of Animals, and in a project for planting the Campagna with the Eucalyptus globulus, well known for its power of destroying malaria. He died of bronchitis and hemorrhage at 55 Via Sistina, Rome, 3 March 1879, and was buried in the protestant cemetery on 5 March.

Among his children were Alfred William Howitt, Australian traveller, and the discoverer of the remains of the explorers Burke and Wills, which he brought to Melbourne for burial; Herbert Charlton Howitt, who was drowned while engineering a road in New Zealand; Anna Mary Howitt, wife of Alfred Alaric Watts, the biographer of her father, and author of 'Art Work in Munich,' who died at Dietenheim 23 July 1884; and Margaret Howitt, the writer of the 'Life of Fredrika Bremer,' and of the memoir of her own mother.

In conjunction with his wife he wrote or edited besides the works mentioned above:

  1. 'The Desolation of Eyam, and other Poems,' 1827.
  2. 'The Literature and Romances of Northern Europe,' 1852.
  3. 'Stories of English and Foreign Life,' 1853.
  4. 'Howitt's Journal of Literature and Popular Progress,' 1847-9.
  5. 'The People's and Howitt's Journal,' 1849.
  6. 'Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain,' 1862, 1864, two series.

His principal works, in addition to those already mentioned, were:

  1. 'Colonisation and Christianity: a History of the treatment of Natives by Europeans,' 1838.
  2. 'The Student Life of Germany,' by Dr. Cornelius, i.e. W. Howitt, 1841.
  3. Peter Schlemihl's 'Wundersame Geschichte,' a translation, 1843.
  4. 'Wanderings of a Journeyman Tailor' by P. D. Holthaus, a translation, 1844.
  5. 'The Life and Adventures of Jack of the Mill,' 1844.
  6. 'German Experiences,' 1844.
  7. 'Life in Dalecarlia,' by F. Bremer, a translation, 1845.
  8. 'The Hall and the Hamlet, or Scenes of Country Life.' 1848, 2 vols.
  9. 'The History of Magic,' by J. Ennemoser, a translation, 1854, 2 vols.
  10. 'The Man of the People,' 1860, 3 vols.
  11. 'The History of the Supernatural in all Ages and Nations,' 1863, 2 vols.
  12. 'Woodburn Grange; a Story of English Country Life,' 1867, 3 vols.
  13. 'The Northern Heights of London, or Historical Associations of Hampstead, Highgate, Muswell Hill, Hornsey, and Islington,' 1869, 8vo.
  14. 'The Mad War-Planet, and other Poems,' 1871.
  15. 'The Religion of Rome,' 1873.

[A. M. H. Watts's Pioneers of the Spiritual Reformation, 1883, pp. 157-325; The Naturalist, April 1839, pp. 366-73, with portrait; Cornelius Brown's Nottinghamshire Worthies, 1883,pp. 355-60; Horne's New Spirit of the Age, 1844, i. 177-98; Wilson's Noctes Ambrosianæ, No. xxxix. November 1828, No. lvi. April 1831; S. C. Hall's Retrospect of a Long Life, 1883, ii. 126-31; Times, 4 March 1879, p. 10, 6 March, p. 5; Allibone's Dict. of English Literature, i. 905-8; Spencer T. Hall's Remarkable People whom I have known, 1873, pp. 311-15; Illustrated London News, 29 March 1879, pp. 297, 298, with portrait.]

G. C. B.

HOWLAND, RICHARD, D.D. (1540–1600), bishop of Peterborough, the son and heir of John Howland, gentleman, of the city of London, and Anne Greenway of Cley, Norfolk, was born at Newport Pond, near Saffron Walden, Essex, and baptised 26 Sept. 1540. He was admitted pensioner at Christ's College, Cambridge, 18 March 1557-8, whence he migrated to St. John's College, where he graduated B.A. 1560-1. He was elected a fellow of Peterhouse 11 Nov. 1562, and proceeded M.A. in 1564. His subsequent degrees were B.D. 1570, D.D. 1578. He was incorporated M.A. of Oxford 9 July 1567. In 1569 he became rector of Stathern, Leicestershire, on the presentation of the master and fellows