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eighth lord Napier, and by her had five sons and four daughters. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Egerton, the present Lord Addington.

[Information from the Hon. A. E. Hubbard; Men of the Time, ed. 1887; Times, 20 July 1868 and 29 and 31 Aug. 1889; Church Times, 6 Sept. 1889; Hansard's Parl. Debates; A. H. Mackonochie, edit. 1890; Return of Memb. of Parl.]

W. A. J. A.

HUBBARD, WILLIAM (1621?–1704), historian of New England, born in 1621 or 1622, was the eldest son of William Hubbard, husbandman, of Tendring, Essex, by his wife, Judith, daughter of John and Martha (Blosse) Knapp of Ipswich, Suffolk (Visitation of Suffolk, ed. Metcalf, 1882, p. 149). He accompanied his father to New England in July 1635, and graduated at Harvard in 1642 (Savage, Genealogical Dict. ii. 486-7). On 17 Nov. 1658 he was ordained, and became first assistant, and subsequently pastor, of the congregational church in Ipswich, Massachusetts, which post he held until 6 May 1703. During the absence of Increase Mather in England in 1688 he was appointed by Sir Edmund Andros to act as president of Harvard. He died at Ipswich, Massachusetts, on 14 Sept. 1704, aged 83. He married first Mary (not Margaret), only daughter of the Rev. Nathaniel Rogers of Ipswich, Massachusetts, by whom he had two sons and a daughter. His second marriage, in 1694, to Mary, widow of Samuel Pearce, who survived him without issue, gave offence to his congregation on account of her supposed social inferiority. During John Dunton's stay in Ipswich he was entertained by Hubbard, of whose learning and virtues he has left an eccentric account (Life and Errors, ii. 134). A manuscript copy of his 'History of New England,' for which the state of Massachusetts promised, but probably did not pay him, 50l., is believed to have been rescued from the flames by Dr. Andrew Eliot in the attack on Governor Thomas Hutchinson's house by the mob in August 1765, and presented by Eliot's son John to the Massachusetts Historical Society, by whom it was wretchedly printed in 1815. Another edition appeared in 1848, forming vols. v-vi. of the second series of the society's 'Historical Collections;' a few copies were also struck off separately.

Hubbard was also author of:

  1. 'The Happiness of a People in the wisdome of their rulers directing, and in the obedience of their brethren attending, unto what Israel ought to do: recommended in a Sermon [on 1 Cor. xii. 32] … preached at Boston,' 4to, Boston, 1676.
  2. 'A Narrative of the Troubles with the Indians in New England, from … 1607 to … 1677.… To which is added a Discourse about the Warre with the Pequods in … 1637. (A Postscript, &c.) [With a Map of New-England, being the first that ever was here cut],' 2 pts., 4to, Boston, 1677; another edition, under the title of 'The Present State of New England,' &c., 2 pts., 4to, London, 1677. The American editions in 8vo and 12mo are worthless. A beautifully printed edition, with a life of the author and notes by Samuel G. Drake, was issued as Nos. iii. and iv. of W. E. Woodward's 'Historical Series,' 4to, Roxbury, Mass., 1865.

During 1682 Hubbard delivered a 'Fast Sermon' and a 'Funeral Discourse' on the death of General Daniel Denison. These, it is said, were also printed.

[H. F. Waters's Genealogical Gleanings in England, vol. i. pt. ii. p. 228; Sibley's Harvard Graduates, i. 54-62; Drake's life referred to.]

G. G.

HUBBERTHORN, RICHARD (1628–1662), quaker writer, only son of John Hubberthorn, a yeoman, was born at Yealand-Redmayne, in the parish of Warton, near Carnforth, Lancashire, and baptised at Warton on 8 June 1628. He was brought up in puritan principles, became an officer in the parliamentary army, and preached to his troop. He left the army on becoming a quaker towards the end of 1648. In 1652 he devoted himself to the work of the quaker ministry, being one of the earliest of George Fox's travelling preachers. He accompanied Fox in his Lancashire journeys, and had a hand (1653) in one of his publications. In 1654 he went with George Whitehead on a mission to Norwich; next year he travelled with Fox in the eastern counties. It appears from his report to Margaret Fell [q. v.] that he was sometimes permitted to speak 'in the steeple-house.' Norwich was still his headquarters in 1659. He came with Fox to London in 1660, and had an audience of Charles II soon after his restoration. A minute account of the interview was published, and is given in Sewel. Charles promised that quakers 'should not suffer for their opinion or religion.' In 1662, during renewed persecution, Fox and Hubberthorn drew up a spirited letter to Charles. Hubberthorn was arrested at Bull and Mouth meeting in June 1662, and committed to Newgate by Alderman Richard Brown. He died in Newgate of gaol fever on 17 Aug. 1662.

Adam Martindale describes him as 'the most rational, calm-spirited man of his judgment that I was ever publicly engaged against.' He is an excellent sample of the