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music owing to the casting vote of the rector of the university (the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone), which was given against him. In 1866 and 1867 he conducted the Philharmonic concerts in Edinburgh, and in the latter year received a medal at the Paris Exhibition, but seems to have been mortified by the bestowal of a similar award upon the Chevé system. In 1869 he was elected to the committee of management of the Royal Academy of Music, and from 1870 to 1873 conducted the academy concerts. In March 1872 he was appointed by the council of education musical inspector of training schools for the United Kingdom. The reports drawn up by him in 1873, 1877, and 1880 are notable for the fairness with which they deal with systems of which he could not approve. He failed to see that the tonic sol-fa system was certain of ultimate success, in spite of its many shortcomings, but he avoided the common mistake of imagining that music, in order to be popular, must also be bad. In 1876 he received the degree of LL.D. from the Edinburgh University; in 1878 read a paper on musical education at a meeting of the Social Science Association at Cheltenham, and in the same year went abroad in order to report on the condition of musical education in continental schools. The report, quoted in his wife's memoir of him, is very instructive. Early in 1880 he was attacked by paralysis, although he was able to resume his work later in the year. He sustained in November 1883 another stroke, and died in London on 21 Feb. 1884, being buried at Kensal Green cemetery on 26 Feb. Mrs. Severn Walker of Malvern Wells possesses a portrait of the composer painted in 1881 or 1882 by Ralph Bowen. Hullah was twice married, first, on 20 Dec. 1838, to Miss Foster, who died in 1862; and secondly, in December 1865, to Frances, only daughter of Lieutenant-colonel G. F. Rosser. His second wife survived him.

His compositions are chiefly in the form of songs. Of these there are some fifty published, besides duets, and `Three Motets for Female Voices.' His editorial work was more valuable. It includes `Part Music,' 1842-5, `The Singer's Library of Concerted Music,' 1859, 'Vocal Scores,' 1847, 'Sea Songs,' `School Songs,' 1851, 'The Song Book,' 1866, a collection of fifty-eight English songs, Germany, 1871, and London, 1880, and numerous psalters and tune-books.

His literary works are as follows:

  1. 'Wilhem's Method of Teaching Singing, adapted to English use,' 1841.
  2. 'A Grammar of Vocal Music,' 1843.
  3. `The Duty and Advantage of Learning to Sing,' lecture, 1846.
  4. `On Vocal Music,' lectures (Queen's College), 1849.
  5. 'A Grammar of Musical Harmony,' 1852.
  6. `Music as an Element of Education,' lecture (St. Martin's Hall), 1854.
  7. 'Music in the Parish Church,' lecture (Newcastle), 1855.
  8. 'Letter on the Connection of the Arts with general Education, in Sir T. D. Acland's Account of the New Oxford Examinations, &c.,' 1858.
  9. 'The History of Modern Music,' lectures (Royal Institution), 1862 (Italian translation by Signor A. Visetti, 1880).
  10. 'A Grammar of Counterpoint,' 1864.
  11. `Lectures on the Third or Transition Period of Musical History' (Royal Institution), 1865.
  12. 'The Cultivation of the Speaking Voice,' 1870.
  13. 'Music in the House' ('Art at Home' series), 1876.
  14. 'How can a sound Knowledge of Music be best and most generally disseminated?' (pamphlet), 1878.

He wrote for the 'Saturday Review' from 1855, and afterwards for the 'Guardian' and 'Fraser's Magazine.'

[Life of John Hullah, LL.D., by his wife, 1886; Grove's Dict.i. 755;Brit. Mus. Cat.; information from Mrs. Severn Walker.]

J. A. F. M.

HULLMANDEL, CHARLES JOSEPH (1789–1850), lithographer, son of a German musician, was born in London in 1789. After travelling on the continent, and making many sketches and studies, he turned his attention to lithography, and in 1818 published at Somers Town `Twenty-four Views of Italy,' drawn and lithographed by himself. Lithography, invented in Germany in 1796, was then little employed or understood in England. In order to learn the processes employed by Engelmann, then or afterwards a partner in the Paris firm of Engelmann, Coindet, & Co., Hullmandel entered in 1821 into an arrangement with him which proved unsatisfactory, and terminated in 1826. In the meantime he published a translation of Raucourt's `Manual of Lithography,' and in 1824 prepared his `Art of Drawing on Stone, giving a full explanation of the various styles, &c.' His practice and study resulted in the discovery of a new mode of preparing the stones, and in 1827 he issued a pamphlet `On some important Improvements in Lithographic Printing,' with illustrations to prove that he could retouch the stones, a point in which his process had been inferior to others. This pamphlet contained letters from Faraday and J.D. Harding [q. v.], testifying respectively to the complete novelty of his process and its superior artistic results. It was followed by another, `On some further Improvements, &c.,' in 1829. In the `Foreign Review' for July 1829 he was attacked in an article on