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is an essential principle in steam locomotion whether on land or water. But Hulls's experiment was a failure, and only excited derision.

The patent for his invention is dated 21 Dec. 1736, and his account of it appeared in a book (12mo, London, 1737) entitled 'Description and Draught of a new-invented Machine for carrying Vessels or Ships out of or into any Harbour, Port, or River against Wind and Tide, or in a Calm; for which his Majesty has granted Letters-patent for the sole benefit of the Author for the space of fourteen years.' The book, which is very rare, was reprinted in facsimile in 1855. De Morgan says that Hulls's work 'in all probability gave suggestions to Symington as Symington did to Fulton,' and that Erasmus Darwin [q.v.] was thinking of Hulls when he prophesied that steam would soon 'drag the slow barge.' In 1754 Hulls published 'The Art of Measuring made Easy by the help of a new Sliding Scale;' he also wrote the 'Maltmakers' Instructor.'

[Quart. Rev. xix. 354, 355; Smiles's Lives of Boulton and Watt, pp. 72-4; De Morgan's Budget of Paradoxes, pp. 88, 254.]

R. E. A.

HULME, FREDERICK WILLIAM (1816–1884), landscape-painter, born at Swinton in Yorkshire in 1816, was son of an artist, from whom he received instruction until he devoted himself to the study of the figure. He made his first appearance as an exhibitor with a landscape at Birmingham in 1841, and, with very rare exceptions, his contributions were invariably landscapes. These were fresh in colour and careful in drawing, much resembling the style of Creswick. In 1844 he came to London, where for a time he worked at designing for engravers, especially for the 'Art Journal' and other illustrated works. He paid many visits to Bettws-y-Coed, and some of his best-known works are views in that neighbourhood. He occasionally worked on pictures in conjunction with other artists, including H. B. Willis. He had a large practice as a teacher of drawing and painting, and published 'A Graduated Series of Drawing Copies on Landscape Subjects for Use of Schools,' 4 parts, 1850, ob. 4to. Hulme was a frequent exhibitor at the British Institution from 1845 to 1862, the Royal Manchester Institution from 1845, the Royal Academy from 1852 till 1884, and at smaller galleries. He died at Kensington on 14 Nov. 1884.

[Athenæum, 22 Nov. 1884.]

A. N.

HULME, NATHANIEL, M.D. (1732–1807), physician, was born on 17 June 1732 at Hulme Thorp, near Halifax, Yorkshire. After serving his apprenticeship with his brother, a medical practitioner at Halifax he proceeded to Guy's Hospital, and in 1755 joined the navy as surgeon's mate. Being stationed at Leith after the peace of 1763, he attended the medical classes at Edinburgh, and graduated M.D. there in 1765; his thesis was 'De Scorbuto,' a disease which his naval experience had brought him into contact with. Coming to London, he commenced practice in Hatton Garden, whence he dated, in May 1768, a Latin essay on scurvy (an expansion of his thesis), with an appendix in English showing that the benefits of lime juice on long voyages had been familiar to the English since the sixteenth century. On the founding of the General Dispensary for the Relief of the Poor, Hulme was elected its first physician. Previous to 1772 he was appointed physician to the City of London Lying-in Hospital, an office which did not include obstetric practice, and, as he is careful to point out, was not tenable by an accoucheur. His 'Treatise on the Puerperal Fever' (London, 1772) was the outcome of his experience at the lying-in hospital. Like the essay on scurvy it shows learning as well as observation. On 17 March 1774 he was elected physician to the Charterhouse by the interest of Lord Sandwich, first lord of the admiralty, and removed to Charterhouse Square, where he resided until his death. At the same time he joined the College of Physicians, but never became a fellow. On 18 Jan. 1777 he gave an 'Oratio de Re Medica' before the Medical Society, with an addition of the case of a Charterhouse pensioner, aged 73, in whom he had succeeded in dissolving or breaking up a stone within the bladder by the following prescription: fifteen grains of salt of tartar, in three ounces of pure water, four times a day, followed immediately by a draught of water containing twenty drops of weak spirit of vitriol. The alleged result was that hundreds of fragments of calculus came away for several weeks, and that the patient remained in good health, according to the latest accounts of him, a year after. The same remedy was advocated by him the following year (1778), also for scurvy, gout, and worms, in a quarto pamphlet, with an appendix on an extemporaneous method of impregnating water and other liquids with fixed air, by simple mixture only, without the assistance of an apparatus or complicated machine. In 1787 he received a gold medal from the Medical Society of Paris for an essay upon a question proposed as to sclerosis of the cellular tissue in the new born. He was elected F.R.S. in 1794, and contributed two papers to the 'Philosophical Transactions' in 1800