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Ivegate and Kirkgate, since completed and called New Street. The action, however, of the lord of the manor, John Marsden of Hornby Castle, Lancashire, or, according to James's 'History of Bradford' (continuation), p.91, the interference of Mr. Leeds of Royd's Hall, lord of the manor of North Brierly, in 1782 postponed for a time the execution of these projects. Hustler was also instrumental in causing the erection of the woollen hall, which was opened in 1773, and gave a lasting impetus to the woollen trade of Bradford and the adjacent district, and he successfully projected the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, which, uniting the German Ocean and the Irish Sea, was opened 4 June 1777. A projected extension of the canal subsequently occupied his attention, and while in precarious health he visited London in 1790 for the purpose of promoting the passing of the bill with that object. He died at Undercliff, near Bradford, on 6 Nov. 1790, and was buried at the Friends' burial-ground at Bradford. Hustler took little part in politics, although in 1745 he actively supported the House of Hanover. He wrote a pamphlet, discussing the policy of the corn bounty, entitled 'The Occasion of the Dearness of Provisions,' &c., 1767, an impartial consideration of the reasons for and against the imposition of a corn bounty; several tracts in favour of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal scheme; and in 1782 and 1787 valuable pamphlets against the exportation of wool, which resulted in a bill for that object being presented to parliament in the latter year.

[Gent. Mag. 1790, p. 1055; Crosfield's Memoirs of Samuel Fothergill, 1843, p. 500; James's Hist. of Bradford (continuation), pp. 90, 91, 99; Smith's Cat. of Friends' Books, i. 1024, 1025.]

G. S. C.

HUTCHESON, FRANCIS (1694–1746), philosopher, son of John Hutcheson, presbyterian minister of Armagh, was born 8 Aug. 1694, probably at Drumalig, a township in Saintfield, co. Down, the residence of his grandfather, Alexander Hutcheson, presbyterian minister of Saintfield. The grandfather had emigrated from Ayrshire, where his family was 'ancient and respectable.' Francis and his brother, Hans, lived with their father at Ballyrea, near Armagh, until in 1702 they were sent, for educational purposes, to live with their grandfather. The grandfather was especially attracted by Francis's sweetness and docility. He afterwards wished to settle some property upon Francis, who peremptorily refused. The two boys were sent to a school of classical reputation kept by a Mr. Hamilton in the old meeting-house at Saintfield. Francis was afterwards moved to an academy of James MacAlpine, Killeleagh, where he worked hard at the scholastic philosophy still taught in Ireland. In 1710 he went to Glasgow, where for six years he studied philosophy, classics, literature, and afterwards theology. He read Samuel Clarke's treatise on the 'Being and Attributes of God,' and sent some criticisms with a request for further explanations to Clarke, who apparently did not answer. Hutcheson always doubted the expediency and validity of the à priori argument stated by Clarke. Upon leaving Glasgow, Hutcheson returned to Ireland, was licensed to preach, and was about to accept the ministry of a small congregation when he was induced to start a private academy in Dublin. He became known to several eminent men, Lord Molesworth [q.v.], Archbishop King (who refused to permit a threatened prosecution of Hutcheson for keeping a school without having subscribed the canons or obtained an episcopal license), and Carteret (afterwards Lord Granville), lord-lieutenant from 1724 to 1730, who, having been struck by his writings, sought him out, and showed him much kindness. Edward Synge, afterwards bishop of Elphin, helped him to revise his papers. He received offers, probably of ecclesiastical preferment, which he felt bound in conscience to refuse. His 'Four Essays' were published anonymously in 1725 and 1728, and his 'Thoughts on Laughter' (attacking Hobbes) and his 'Observations on [Mandeville's] Fable of the Bees' were contributed to 'Hibernicus's Letters' in 1725-7. His treatises led to a controversy with Gilbert Burnet in the 'London Journal' in 1728, and were in the same year attacked by John Balguy [q.v.] in an anonymous treatise called 'The Foundation of Moral Goodness.' Both writers were disciples of Samuel Clarke.

These writings probably led to his unsolicited election in 1729 to the chair of moral philosophy at Glasgow, where he succeeded his old teacher, Gersom Carmichael. Here he spent the rest of his life, lecturing five days a week on natural religion, morals, jurisprudence, and government: three days upon the Greek and Latin moralists; and upon Sunday evenings on the evidences of Christianity. The last course attracted many hearers from every faculty, though it appears that his theology was of so liberal a type as to give some offence to the orthodox. Dugald Stewart, in his account of Adam Smith (one of Hutcheson's pupils), says that all Hutcheson's hearers agreed in the extraordinary effect produced by these lectures. Stewart thinks that he must have been far more impressive as a speaker than as a writer, and