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kingship of Deira, between the Tees and the Humber, does not seem to have been founded until his death. It is quite possible that Ida's Bernicia did not extend as far as the Tees. He is said to have had six sons by queens and six by concubines (Florence) The consolidation and advance of the heathen power under him and his sons caused a widespread apostasy from Christianity among the Picts. He reigned twelve years, and died in 559. On his death Ælla (d. 588) [q.v.] became king in Deira, and is supposed to have extended his power over Bernicia (Skene). There, however, Ida's house retained the kingship, and six of his sons, Adda, Glappa, Hussa, Freodulf, Theodric, and Æthelric (d. 594?), reigned in succession over their father's kingdom. Ida is often said to have been called the 'Flame-bearer' by the Welsh poets (Green, Making of England, p. 72); for this there is no ground. The epithet (Flamddwyn), which is only to be found in two Bardic poems, is in both instances applied to his son Theodric (d. 587), famous for his conflicts with Urbgen or Urien and his sons (Skene).

[Bæda, Hist. Eccl. iii. cc. 6, 16, v. c. 24 (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Anglo-Sax. Chron. an. 547; Nennius, pp. 49-53 (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Symeon, Hist. Regum, c. 12 and De Primo Saxonum Adventu ap. Sym. Opp. i. 14, 374 (Rolls Ser.); Florence, i. 5 (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Will. of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum, i. c. 44 (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Hoveden, i. 3 (Rolls Ser.); Skene's Four Ancient Books of Wales, i. 6, 62, 265, 366, ii. 413, 418; Elton's Origins of Engl. Hist. pp. 380, 381, 2nd edit.; Guest's Origines Celticæ, ii. 273; Rhys's Celtic Britain, pp. 111, 145; Hinde's Hist. of Northumberland, i. 63-5.]

W. H.

IDDESLEIGH, first Earl of. [See Northcote, Stafford Henry, 1818–1887.]

IDWAL ab Meirig (d. 997), king of Gwynedd, was the son of Meirig ab Idwal Voel, who, though the rightful heir to the throne, was killed in 986, in the course of one of the many struggles for the kingship which characterised the period from the death of Howel Dda in 950 until the time of Gruffydd ab Llewelyn. Idwal, on the death of his father, fled for safety to the collegiate establishment at Llancarvan. Meredydd ab Owain ab Howel Dda then succeeded in usurping the sovereignty of Gwynedd, and a few years after he marched on Glamorgan with an army of Danish mercenaries and laid waste the country; his object was to seize the fugitive Idwal, but in this he was unsuccessful. By the year 995 the sons of Meirig gathered a sufficient following to return to North Wales, and, by defeating Meredydd at the battle of Llangwn, Idwal at last succeeded to the sovereignty. But the Danes had overrun the country during Meredydd's feeble reign: the churches had been spoiled, the people were demoralised, and there was a great scarcity of food. Idwal is eulogised in the `Gwentian Chronicle' for his bravery and statesmanship in attempting to repair these disasters. But he was killed in 997 in attempting to expel the Danes, who, under Sweyn, the son of Harald, were once more devastating Anglesea. He left an infant son, Iago ab Idwal ab Meirig [q.v.]

[Annales Cambriæ; Brut y Tywysogion in Rhys and Evans's Bruts, pp. 263-4; Gwentian Chron. ed. by Owen, p. 41.]

D. Ll. T.

IDWAL Voel (d. 943), a prince of Gwynedd, succeeded to the sovereignty in 915, on the death of his father, Anarawd, the eldest son of Rhodri, king of all Wales. During the earlier part of his reign the Welsh were kept in check in the marches by Æthelflæd, 'the lady of the Mercians,' sister of Edward the elder; and on her death, about 918, Idwal and the other princes of North Wales renewed their allegiance to the English crown by 'seeking Edward for their lord' at Tamworth (Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, sub 922). These oaths of fealty were renewed at Eamote in 926 to Æthelstan, who, according to the later chroniclers, imposed on Gwynedd a heavy tribute of money and cattle (William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum, i. 148; Rhys and {{sc|Evans's]] Bruts; Brut y Saeson, p. 387), but allowed Idwal to continue as his under-king. Idwal and Howel Dda were also with Æthelstan at Exeter during Easter 928, for Æthelstan there issued a charter which is attested by them (marked by Kemble as questionable, Cod.Dipl. No. 1101). Nothing further is recorded of Idwal until 943, when he and his brother Elised were killed by the English (Annales Cambriæ), probably after a revolt against payment of the tribute, for the 'Gwentian Chronicle' says that in 940 the Welsh regained their freedom through the bravery and wisdom of Idwal and the other princes of Wales. The whole of Wales enjoyed comparative peace during Idwal's reign, for the peaceable Howel Dda was at the same period king of South Wales and Powys. Idwal was succeeded by his two sons, Iago ab Idwal Voel [q. v.] and Ieuav, as joint sovereigns of the kingdom of Gwynedd.

[Anglo-Saxon Chron.; Annales Cambriæ; Brut y Tywysogion and Brut y Saeson (Rhys and Evans's Red Book of Hergest, vol. ii.); William of Malmesbury; Gwentian Chron.]

D. Ll. T.

IESTIN ab Gwrgant (fl. 1093), prince of Gwent and Morganwg, is a shadowy hero