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signed his confession on 12 Jan. 1547 (Herbert, Reign of Henry VIII, s.a.), and his enemies, who were eager to share the proceeds of his forfeiture, introduced a bill for his attainder into parliament. The bill, of course, passed at once, and the dying king appointed a commission to give it the royal assent. This was done on 27 Jan., and orders were given for Norfolk's execution on the following morning. But in the night the king died, and the lords of the council did not think it wise to begin their rule by an act of useless bloodshed. Norfolk, indeed, had cut the ground from under their feet by sending a petition to the king begging that his estates should be settled on the young Prince Edward, and the king had graciously accepted the suggestion (Nott, App. xxxix.)

Norfolk remained a prisoner in the Tower during Edward VI's reign, but was released, on Mary's accession. He petitioned parliament for the reversal of his attainder on the ground that Henry VIII had not signed the commission to give the bill his assent (ib. App. l.) His petition was granted, and he was restored Duke of Norfolk on 3 Aug. 1553. He was further sworn of the privy council and made a knight of the Garter. His services were required for business in which he had ample experience, and on 17 Aug. he presided as lord high steward at the trial of the Duke of Northumberland, and had the satisfaction of sentencing a former opponent to death. In January 1554 the old man was lieutenant-general of the queen's army to put down Wyat's rebellion. In this he displayed an excess of rashness. He marched with far inferior forces against Wyat, whose headquarters were at Rochester, and in a parley was deserted by a band of five hundred Londoners, who were in his ranks. His forces were thrown into confusion and fled, leaving their guns behind. Wyat was thus encouraged to continue his march upon London. Norfolk retired to his house at Kenninghall, Norfolk, where he died on 25 Aug. 1554. He was buried in the church of Framlingham, where a monument, which still exists, was erected over his grave—an altar tomb with effigies of Norfolk and his second wife. (For a discussion of the question whether this is the tomb of the second or third duke, see Trans. of the Suffolk Archæol. Soc. iii. 340-57; there is an engraving in Gent. Mag. 1845, pt. i. p. 266.) Norfolk is described by the Venetian ambassador, Falieri, in 1531 as ‘small and spare of stature and his hair black. He is prudent, liberal, affable, and astute; associates with everybody, has great experience in the administration of the kingdom, discusses affairs admirably, aspires to greater elevation’ (Venetian Calendar, iv. 294-5). This was written when Norfolk, after Wolsey's death, seemed, as the chief of the English nobles, to be the destined successor of Wolsey; but it soon appeared that the Tudor policy was not of a kind which could be best carried out by nobles. Norfolk was influential more through his position than through his abilities, and did not scruple at personal intrigue to secure his power. Still, subservient as he might show himself, he was not so useful as men like Cromwell, and his hopes of holding the chief place were constantly disappointed. He was hot-tempered, self-seeking, and brutal, and his career shows the deterioration of English life under Henry VIII.

Norfolk's four children by his first wife died young; by his second wife, who died 30 Nov. 1558 and was buried in the Howard Chapel, Lambeth, he had two sons (Henry, earl of Surrey [q. v.], and Thomas, 1528?-1583, who was educated by Leland, and was created Viscount Howard of Bindon 13 Jan. 1558-9) and one daughter, Mary [q. v.], who married Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond [q. v.], natural son of Henry VIII. There is a portrait of Norfolk, by Holbein, at Norfolk House, another at Windsor, and another at Castle Howard. The first of these has been engraved in Lodge's ‘Portraits’ and in Cartwright and Dallaway's ‘History of Sussex.’ There are other engravings by Vorsterman and Scriven.

[Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 272-5; Lodge's Portraits, vol. ii.; Doyle's Official Baronage, ii. 591-594; Collins's Peerage, p. 44, &c.; Howard's Memorials of the Howards; Hawes and Loder's Hist. of Framlingham; Brewer and Gairdner's Letters and Papers; State Papers of Hen. VIII; Bergenroth's Spanish Calendar; Brown's Venetian Calendar; Hamilton's Irish Calendar, i. 2-8; Brewer's Calendar of Carew MSS. vol. i.; Turnbull's Calendar of the Reign of Mary; Haynes's Burghley Papers; Nott's Works of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, Appendix; Burnet's Hist. of the Reformation; Foxe's Acts and Monuments; Herbert's Reign of Henry VIII; Godwin's Reign of Mary; Lodge's Illustr. of British History, vol. i.; Hall's Chronicle; Cavendish's Life of Wolsey; State Trials, i. 451, &c.; Blomefield's Hist. of Norfolk, iii. 165-6; Dallaway and Cartwright's Hist. of Sussex, vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. 198-205; Sadleir's State Papers, vol. i.; Froude's Hist. of England; Sanford and Townsend's Great Governing Families of England, ii. 323-35; Gent. Mag. 1845, pt. i. pp. 147-52 (a careful account of Anne, the duke's first wife), 259-67 (an account of Elizabeth, the second wife).]

M. C.

HOWARD, THOMAS III, fourth Duke of Norfolk of the Howard house (1536–1572), statesman, born on 10 March 1536,