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in Salisbury Cathedral,’ 4to, Devizes, 1855. 9. ‘A List of Wiltshire Sheriffs,’ 4to, Devizes, 1856. 10. ‘History of Longleat,’ 8vo, Devizes, 1857. 11. ‘The History of Kington St. Michael, co. Wilts,’ 4to, Devizes, 1857. 12. ‘The History of the Priory of Monkton Farley, Wilts,’ 4to, Devizes, 1857. 13. ‘Swindon and its Neighbourhood,’ 4to, Devizes, 1861. 14. ‘Malmesbury,’ 4to, Devizes, 1863. 15. ‘Devizes,’ 4to, Devizes, 1864. 16. ‘The Sheriffs' Turn, Wilts, A.D. 1439,’ 4to, Devizes, 1872.

Jackson also edited for the Wiltshire Archæological and Natural History Society the ‘Wiltshire Topographical Collection’ of John Aubrey, 4to, 1862; Leland's ‘Journey through Wiltshire,’ 4to (1875?); and for the Roxburghe Club the ‘Glastonbury Inquisition of A.D. 1189, called “Liber Henrici de Soliaco,”’ 4to, 1882. He was an active contributor to the ‘Wiltshire Archæological Magazine,’ in which appeared his valuable monographs on ‘Charles, Lord Stourton, and the Murder of the Hartgills, January 1557,’ 1864; ‘Ambresbury Monastery,’ 1866; ‘Ancient Chapels in Wilts,’ 1867; and ‘Rowley, alias Wittenham, co. Wilts,’ 1872, reissued separately.

[Athenæum, 14 March 1891, p. 352; Crockford's Clerical Directory, 1890; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Foster's Yorkshire Pedigrees, vol. i.]

G. G.

JACKSON, JOHN RICHARDSON (1819–1877), engraver, born at Portsmouth on 14 Dec. 1819, was second son of E. Jackson, a banker in that town. In 1836 he became pupil to Robert Graves, A.R.A. [q. v.], from whom he learnt line-engraving. He subsequently devoted himself to engraving in mezzotint. In 1847 he engraved ‘The Otter and Salmon’ after Sir Edwin Landseer, which brought him into notice. He obtained frequent employment as an engraver of portraits, and to that work he almost entirely devoted himself. His engravings show careful drawing, and a great feeling for the colour in mezzotint. He engraved numerous portraits after George Richmond, R.A., including ‘Lord Hatherley,’ ‘The Earl of Radnor,’ ‘Samuel Wilberforce,’ ‘Archbishop Trench;’ several after J. P. Knight, R.A., including ‘Sir F. Grant, R.A.,’ and ‘F. R. Say;’ ‘The Queen’ after W. Fowler; ‘The Princess Royal and her Sisters’ after Winterhalter; ‘The Archbishop of Armagh’ after J. Catterson Smith, and ‘Lady Gertrude Fitzpatrick’ after Sir Joshua Reynolds. He also engraved, among other subjects, ‘St. John the Baptist’ after the well-known picture by Murillo in the National Gallery. Jackson died at Southsea of fever on 10 May 1877. There are some fine examples of his engravings in the print room at the British Museum.

[Printing Times, 15 June 1877; Art Journal, 1877, p. 155; Redgrave's Dict. of Artists.]

L. C.

JACKSON, JOSEPH (1733–1792), letter-founder, was born in Old Street, Shoreditch, London, 4 Sept. 1733, and was educated at a school near St. Luke's, in which church he was the first infant baptised. He was apprenticed to William Caslon the elder (1692–1766) [q. v.], at Chiswell Street, to learn ‘the whole art’ (E. Rowe Mores, Dissertation on English Typographical Founders, 1778, p. 83), and, says Nichols, ‘being exceedingly tractable in the common branches of the business, he had a great desire to learn the method of cutting the punches, which is in general kept profoundly secret’ (Literary Anecdotes, ii. 359). This important art was carried on privately by Caslon and his son, and Jackson only discovered the process by watching through a hole in the wainscot. He worked for Caslon a short time after the expiration of his articles, and is represented as a rubber in the view of the foundry given in the ‘Universal Magazine’ (June 1750, vi. 274). Thomas Cottrell and he were discharged as the ringleaders of a quarrel among the workmen, and the two began business themselves. In 1759, however, Jackson was serving on board the Minerva frigate as armourer, and in May 1761 held the same office on the Aurora. At the peace of 1763 he took 40l. prize-money. Having left the navy, he returned to work in Cottrell's foundry in Nevill's Court, Fetter Lane. He then hired a small house in Cock Lane, and about 1765 produced his first specimen-sheet of types. His business increased, and he moved to Dorset Street, Salisbury Square, Fleet Street. In 1773 he issued another specimen, including Hebrew, Persian, and Bengalee letters; it is praised by Mores, who describes Jackson as ‘obliging and communicative’ (Dissertation, p. 83). He produced the type used in Domesday Book, 1783. Woide's facsimile of the New Testament of the Codex Alexandrinus is described on the title-page as being ‘typis Jacksonianis;’ and Jackson also cut the punches for Kipling's edition of the ‘Codex Bezæ,’ 1793. In 1790 his moulds and matrices were much damaged in a fire. He cut for Bensley a splendid fount for Macklin's ‘Bible,’ 1800, 7 vols. folio, and another for the same printer, used in Hume's ‘England,’ 1806, 10 vols. folio; the last, he asserted, would ‘be the most exquisite performance of the kind in this or any other country’ (Gent. Mag. 1792, p. 166). The anxiety of this undertaking is supposed to have hastened his death, which took place 14 Jan. 1792, in his fifty-ninth year.