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State of Music in London’ (a pamphlet), London, 1791; ‘Four Ages, together with Essays on Various Subjects,’ London, 1798; ‘A First Book for Performers on Keyed Instruments;’ and various anonymous letters and essays contributed to periodicals.

Posthumous publications were: ‘Anthems and Church Services by the late W. Jackson of Exeter, edited by J. Peddon’ (organist to the cathedral), 3 vols., Exeter, 1819; ‘The Year: a Cantata,’ London, 1859; and selections from his works, sacred and secular, 4 vols., published in London without date.

[Grove's Dict. of Music, ii. 27; Brown's Biog. Dict. of Music, p. 343; Bemrose's Choir Chant Book, App. p. xxi; Georgian Era, iv. 246; Clayden's Early Life of Samuel Rogers, p. 399; Public Characters of 1798–9, p. 242; John Taylor's Records of My Life; Madrigal Soc. Records; Jackson's music in Brit. Mus.]

R. F. S.

JACKSON, WILLIAM (1751–1815), bishop of Oxford, born in 1751, was the younger son of Cyril Jackson, physician, of Stamford, Lincolnshire, but latterly of York. He was entered at Manchester grammar school on 12 Jan. 1762, but was removed to Westminster in 1764, when he was elected a king's scholar. On 1 June 1768 he matriculated at Oxford as a student of Christ Church (Foster, Alumni Oxon. 1715–1886, ii. 737), and in 1770 gained the chancellor's prize for Latin verse, the subject being ‘Ars Medendi.’ He graduated B.A. in 1772, M.A. in 1775, B.D. in 1783, and D.D. in 1799. At Christ Church he was for many years actively engaged as tutor, rhetoric reader, and censor. He also became chaplain to Markham, archbishop of York, who appointed him prebendary of Southwell on 23 Sept. 1780 (Le Neve, Fasti, ed. Hardy, iii. 420), prebendary of York on 26 March 1783 (ib. iii. 208), and rector of Beeford in East Yorkshire. On 19 Dec. 1783 he was elected regius professor of Greek at Oxford (ib. iii. 517), and shortly afterwards one of the curators of the Clarendon press. In the same year he was chosen preacher of Lincoln's Inn. On 4 Jan. 1792 he was made prebendary of Bath and Wells (ib. i. 203), and became dean in 1799 (ib. i. 155). He was preferred to a canonry at Christ Church on 2 Aug. 1799 (ib. ii. 522). The prince regent having vainly solicited his old tutor, Jackson's elder brother, Cyril [q. v.], to accept a bishopric, conferred that dignity upon William. Jackson was accordingly consecrated bishop of Oxford on 23 Feb. 1812 (ib. ii. 509), and was subsequently appointed clerk of the closet to the king. He died at Cuddesdon, Oxford, on 2 Dec. 1815 (Gent. Mag. vol. lxxxv. pt. ii. p. 633). In E. H. Barker's ‘Parriana’ (i. 421–4) Jackson is described as very self-indulgent. His portrait, by W. Owen, is in Christ Church Hall. An engraving by S. W. Reynolds is in the old school at Manchester.

Jackson published several sermons.

[Reg. Manchester Grammar School (Chetham Soc.), i. 98–9; Welch's Alumni Westmon. 1852, p. 388; Wood's Antiq. of Oxford (Gutch), vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. 855, 950; Brit. Mus. Cat.]

G. G.

JACKSON, WILLIAM, ‘of Masham’ (1815–1866), musical composer, was born at Masham in Yorkshire on 9 Jan. 1815. He was the son of a miller, and as a boy worked in the flour-mill or in the fields. At an early age he showed an interest in music and in the mechanism of instruments. After mending some barrel-organs for neighbours, he induced his father (equally inexperienced) to help him in the construction of one, a task the pair accomplished during leisure hours in four months' time. Jackson then made a five-stop finger-organ. He had taught himself to play on fifteen musical instruments, studying scores from a library, as well as Callcott's ‘Grammar of Thorough Bass.’ His first efforts in composition were some tunes for a military band, and twelve short anthems. In 1832 Jackson was earning 3s. 6d. a week as a journeyman miller; but after taking a few lessons at Ripon, he was appointed first organist to the Masham Church, at a salary of 30l. In 1839 Jackson went into partnership with a tallow-chandler for thirteen years. In 1852 he settled in Bradford as a music-seller, in partnership with one Winn, and became organist to St. John's Church, and afterwards to the Horton Lane Independent Chapel. He was conductor of the Bradford Choral Union (male voices), chorus-master of the Bradford musical festivals of 1853, 1856, and 1859, and conductor of the Festival Choral Society from 1856. Jackson came with his chorus of 210 singers to London in 1858, and performed before the queen at Buckingham Palace.

Jackson did not live to conduct his last work, the ‘Praise of Music,’ composed for the Bradford festival of 1866. He died at Ashgrove, Bradford, on 15 April 1866, leaving a widow and nine children. His son William, organist at Morningside Church, Edinburgh, died at Ripon on 10 Sept. 1877.

Jackson published: 1. An anthem for soprano and chorus, ‘For joy let fertile valleys ring,’ 1839. 2. A glee, ‘Sisters of the Sea,’ which won the prize at Huddersfield, 1840. 3. ‘103rd Psalm,’ 1841. 4. ‘The Deliverance of Israel from Babylon,’ oratorio, 3 parts, Leeds, 1844–5, first performed at Bradford, 1847, and favourably criticised. 5. ‘Blessed be the Lord God of Israel.’ 6. A service in G.'