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Officer,’ 1851; reprinted with corrections, 8vo, Bombay, 1857. 4. ‘Memoir of the First Campaign in the hills north of Cutchee, under Major Billamore, in 1839–40, by one of his surviving Subalterns,’ with appendix, post 8vo, London, 1852. 5. ‘Record Book of the Scinde Irregular Horse,’ printed for private use, 1st vol. fol., London, 1853; 2nd vol., London, 1856. 6. ‘Papers regarding the First Campaign against the Predatory Tribes of Cutchee in 1839–40, and affairs on the Scinde Frontier. Major Billamore's surviving subaltern versus Sir William Napier and the “Naval and Military Gazette,”’ 8vo, London, 1854. 7. ‘Remarks by a Bombay Officer on a pamphlet published in 1849 on “The Deficiency of European Officers in the Army of India, by one of themselves.”’ 8. ‘Remarks on the Native Troops of the Indian Army,’ London, 1854. 9. ‘Notes on Sir Charles Napier's posthumous work “On the Defects of the Government of India,”’ 8vo, London, 1854. 10. ‘On the Causes of the Defects existing in our Army and in our Military Arrangement,’ London, 1855. 11. ‘Rifle Practice with Plates,’ 1st edit. 1855, 2nd edit. 1856, 3rd edit., 8vo, London and Bombay, 1857. 12. ‘Letters to a Lady on the progress of Being in the Universe,’ for private circulation, 1855; reprinted, with prefatory apology and addenda, and published 8vo, London, 1858. 13. ‘Tracts on the Native Army of India, its Organisation and Discipline, with Notes by the Author,’ 8vo, London, 1857. 14. ‘Notes on Sir William Napier's Administration of Scinde,’ 8vo, no date.

[Despatches; India Office Records; official and private correspondence and papers.]

R. H. V.

JACOB, JOSEPH (1667?–1722), sectary, born of quaker parents about 1667, was apprenticed to a linendraper in London, and early showed a keen interest in politics. In 1688, shortly after his coming of age, he showed his zeal for the revolution by riding to meet William of Orange on his progress from Torbay. On the passing of the Toleration Act in 1689 he avowed himself a congregationalist, and studied for the ministry under Robert Trail (1642–1716), a Scottish presbyterian minister in London. As a preacher he obtained a numerous following. He conducted a weekly lecture (1697) in the meeting-house of Thomas Gouge (1665?–1700) [q. v.], but this was soon stopped on the ground of his preaching politics. In his farewell sermon he satirised Matthew Mead [q. v.] and other leading nonconformist divines. He carried away some of Gouge's hearers, and his friends built him (1698) a meeting-house in Parish Street, Southwark. Here he introduced the then novel practice of standing to sing; and enforced, on pain of excommunication, a strict code of life. Dress was regulated; wigs were not allowed; the moustache for men was obligatory. No one was permitted to marry out of the congregation or to attend the worship of any other church. The society dwindled away, and the meeting-house was given up in 1702. Jacob then hired Turners' Hall, Philpot Lane, Fenchurch Street, where he preached political sermons, introducing many personalities. Before 1715 he removed to Curriers' Hall, London Wall, near Cripplegate, sharing the use of it with a baptist congregation. He died on 26 June 1722, aged 55. The inscription on his monument in Bunhill Fields described him as ‘an apostolic preacher.’ He had good natural capacity and some learning, but his eccentricities prevented his exercising any permanent influence. His wife, Sarah Jacob, and two of his daughters were buried in Bunhill Fields. He published: 1. ‘Two Thanksgiving Sermons,’ &c., 1702, 4to. 2. ‘A Thanksgiving Sermon,’ &c., 1705, 4to.

[Wilson's Dissenting Churches of London, 1808, i. 139 sq., 236, ii. 561; James's Hist. Litig. Presb. Chapels, 1867, p. 690.]

A. G.

JACOB, JOSHUA (1805?–1877), leader of the ‘White Quakers,’ born at Clonmel, co. Tipperary, about 1805, prospered as a grocer in Dublin. A birthright member of the Society of Friends, he was disowned by that body in 1838. He then formed a society of his own, which gained adherents at Dublin, Clonmel, Waterford, and Mountmellick, Queen's County. His principal coadjutor was Abigail, daughter of William Beale of Irishtown, near Mountmellick. The society held a yearly meeting of Friends, commonly called ‘White Quakers,’ in Dublin, on 1 May 1843. Its nickname was suggested by the practice of wearing undyed garments, a costume previously adopted, in 1762, by John Woolman (1720–1772) [q. v.] Jacob protested also against the use of newspapers, bells, clocks, and watches. Funds employed by him in his religious experiment were said to be derived from the property of some orphans, whose guardian he was. A chancery suit to recover the funds went against him, and he was imprisoned for two years for contempt of court. From his prison he issued anathemas against the chancellor (Sugden) and Master Litton. About 1849 he established a community at Newlands, Clondalkin, co. Dublin, formerly the residence of Arthur Wolfe, viscount Kilwarden [q. v.] The members of this establishment