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lived in common, abstaining from flesh-food, and making bruised corn the staple of their diet, flour being rejected. On the breaking up of the Newlands community, Jacob went into business again at Celbridge, co. Kildare. He had lived apart from his wife, who did not share his peculiar views. On her death he married a person in humble life who was a Roman catholic, and at Celbridge Jacob brought up a numerous family in that faith. He died in Wales on 15 Feb. 1877, and was buried at Glasnevin cemetery, Dublin, in a plot of ground purchased long previously in conjunction with Abigail Beale, on which an obelisk had been erected.

A list of his printed writings, undated (except the last), but all (except the first) issued in 1843, is given in Smith's ‘Catalogue,’ along with other publications emanating from the society:

  1. ‘On the 18th of the 3rd month, 1842 … the word of the Lord came,’ &c., fol.
  2. ‘The Beast, False Prophet,’ &c., fol.
  3. ‘To the Police of Dublin,’ &c., 8vo.
  4. ‘Newspapers, Mountebanks,’ &c., fol.
  5. ‘To those calling themselves Roman Catholics,’ &c., fol.
  6. ‘The Sandy Foundation,’ &c., fol.
  7. ‘Some Account of the Progress of the Truth,’ &c., Mountmellick, 1843, 8vo, 3 vols. issued in parts.

Other tracts, later than the above, are known to have been printed; but they were not published, and their circulation was wholly restricted to adherents.

[Smith's Catalogue of Friends' Books, 1867, ii. 4; Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography, 1878, p. 260; private information.]

A. G.

JACOB, ROBERT, M.D. (d. 1588), physician, eldest son of Giles Jacob of London, was entered at Merchant Taylors' School on 21 Jan. 1563–4 (Register, ed. Robinson, i. 4). He matriculated as a sizar of Trinity College, Cambridge, on 12 Nov. 1565, proceeded B.A. in 1569–70, was elected a fellow, and in 1573 commenced M.A. He graduated M.D. at Basle, and was incorporated at Cambridge on 15 May 1579. He became physician to Queen Elizabeth, who in 1581 sent him, at the Czar Ivan's request, to the Russian court, where he attended the czarina, and acquired a reputation which still survives. Jacob recommended Lady Mary Hastings to the czar for his seventh wife. Happily for the lady the czar died before the conclusion of the negotiations, which were opened in 1583 with the sanction of Elizabeth. Jacob returned to England with Sir Jerome Bowes [q. v.], the English envoy in Russia, about March 1584. The Russian company charged him with trading on his own account. On 21 May 1583 he was admitted a licentiate of the College of Physicians in London, a candidate on 12 Nov. 1585, and a fellow on 15 March 1586. In the latter year he went out to Russia a second time. He died abroad, unmarried, in 1588 (Probate Act Book, P. C. C., June 1588).

[Hamel's England and Russia; Russia at the close of the Sixteenth Century, ed. Bond (Hakl. Soc.), pp. 292–3; Cooper's Athenæ Cantabr. ii. 76; Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878, i. 88–9; British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review, October 1862, p. 291; will registered in P. C. C. 42, Rutland.]

G. G.

JACOB, WILLIAM (1762?–1851), traveller and miscellaneous writer, was born about 1762. For some years he carried on business in Newgate Street, London, as a merchant, trading to South America. He was returned for Rye, Sussex, to the House of Commons as a tory in July 1808, and sat till the dissolution in 1812. In 1809 and 1810 he spent six months in Spain, and the letters he wrote from that country were published as ‘Travels in the South of Spain,’ 4to, London, 1811, with numerous plates. He was elected alderman for the ward of Lime Street in 1810, but resigned his gown in the following year. His industry in collecting and epitomising returns and averages connected with the corn law question was rewarded by his appointment in 1822 to the comptrollership of corn returns to the board of trade, from which he retired on a pension in January 1842. He died on 17 Dec. 1851, aged 89 (Gent. Mag. new ser. xxxvii. 523). On 23 April 1807 he was elected F.R.S. (Thomson, Hist. of Roy. Soc. App. iv.)

He wrote also:

  1. ‘Considerations on the Protection required by British Agriculture, and on the Influence of the Price of Corn on Exportable Productions,’ 8vo, London, 1814.
  2. ‘A Letter to Samuel Whitbread, Esq., M.P., being a Sequel to “Considerations” … To which are added, Remarks on the Publications of a Fellow of University College, Oxford, Mr. Ricardo, and Mr. Torrens,’ 8vo, London, 1815.
  3. ‘An Inquiry into the Causes of Agricultural Distress,’ 8vo, London, 1816 (also in the ‘Pamphleteer,’1817, x. 395–418).
  4. ‘A View of the Agriculture, Manufacture, Statistics, and State of Society of Germany and parts of Holland and France, taken during a Journey through those Countries in 1819,’ 4to, London, 1820.
  5. ‘Report on the Trade in Foreign Corn, and on the Agriculture of the North of Europe. … To which is added an Appendix of Official Documents, Averages of Prices,’ &c., 2nd edit. 8vo, London, 1826.
  6. ‘A Report … respecting the Agriculture and the Trade in Corn in some of the Continental States of Northern Europe,’ dated 16 March 1828, in the ‘Pamphleteer,’