Open main menu

Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 29.djvu/133

This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

tine's, and there died on 11 or 12 Aug. 791 (Symeon, or 790 Flor. Wig. and Anglo-Saxon Chron.) He was buried in the monastery. Jaenbert was the first archbishop of Canterbury of whose coins specimens have been preserved.

[Haddan and Stubbs's Eccl. Docs. iii. 402–466; Hook's Lives of the Archbishops, i. 242–254; Kemble's Codex Dipl. i. cxiii–clvii, mxix (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Anglo-Saxon Chron. ann. 763, 764, 785, 790 (Rolls Ser.); Flor. Wig. ann. 764, 790 Engl. Hist. Soc.); Symeon of Durham, ii. 43, 53 (Rolls Ser.); Hoveden, i. 8 (Rolls Ser.); William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum, i. c. 87 (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Gesta Pontiff. p. 15 (Rolls Ser.); Gervase, ii. 346 (Rolls Ser.); Ralph de Diceto, i. 16, 124, 126; Thorn, cols. 1773–5, 2210, 2211 (Twysden); Matt. Paris's Vitæ Offarum, p. 978, Wats; Elmham, pp. 319, 335, Hardwick; Hawkins's Silver Coinage, p. 102, ed. Kenyon; Dict. Chr. Biog., art. ‘Jaenbert,’ ii. 336, by Bishop Stubbs.]

W. H.

JAFFRAY, ALEXANDER (1614–1673), director of the chancellary of Scotland and a quaker, son of Alexander Jaffray (d. 10 Jan. 1645), provost of Aberdeen, by his wife Magdalen Erskine of Pittodrie, was born at Aberdeen in July 1614. His education, which began in 1623 at the Aberdeen High School, was desultory; he was at several country schools, and spent part of a session, 1631–2, at Marischal College, Aberdeen, leaving it at the age of eighteen to marry a girl of his parents' choice. Shortly after his marriage his father sent him to Edinburgh, where he stayed some time in the house of his relative Robert Burnet, father of Gilbert Burnet [q. v.] His father sent him in 1632 and 1633 to London, and in 1634 and 1635 to France. At Whitsuntide 1636 he set up housekeeping in Aberdeen, his wife having hitherto lived with his parents. He was made a bailie in 1642, and in this capacity committed a servant of Sir George Gordon of Haddo to prison for riot. On 1 July 1643 Gordon attacked Jaffray on the road near Kintore, Aberdeenshire, wounding him in the head, and his brother, John Jaffray, in the arm. For this outrage Gordon was fined twenty thousand merks, five thousand of which went as damages to the Jaffrays. On 19 March 1644 Gordon, who had joined the rising under George Gordon, second marquis of Huntly [q. v.], rode into Aberdeen with sixty horse, captured the Jaffrays and others, and confined them, first at Strathbogie, Aberdeenshire, afterwards at Auchendoun Castle, Banffshire. They were released in about seven weeks, but Jaffray's wife had died at Aberdeen, partly from the fright caused by the violence attending her husband's capture. Owing to the troubles of the times, Jaffray, who now represented Aberdeen in the Scottish parliament, and had been nominated (19 July 1644) a commissioner for suppressing the rebellion, took refuge in Dunnottar Castle, Kincardineshire; but, leaving it one day, he was taken prisoner with his brother Thomas, and committed for several weeks to the stronghold of Pitcaple, Aberdeenshire. Taking advantage of the laxity of the royalist garrison, the Jaffrays and another prisoner made themselves masters of the place (September 1645), holding it for twenty-four hours, till they were relieved by a party of their friends. Thereupon they burned the stronghold, an act which received the approbation of the Scottish parliament on 19 Feb. 1649.

Jaffray appears to have been the representative of Aberdeen in the Scottish parliament from 1644 to 1650. He sat on important committees, and exercised what he afterwards considered ‘unwarranted zeal’ in censuring delinquents. In 1649, and again in 1650, he was one of six commissioners deputed to treat with Charles II in Holland. On the second occasion he blames himself for procuring Charles's adhesion to the covenant, well knowing that he hated it in his heart. He took part in the battle of Dunbar (3 Sept. 1650); his horse was shot under him; and he was severely wounded and taken prisoner; his brother Thomas was killed. During the five or six months which elapsed before his exchange, Jaffray had many conversations with Cromwell and his chaplain, John Owen, D.D., with the result that his views on questions of religious liberty were widened, and his attachment to presbyterianism diminished. He was provost of Aberdeen (not for the first time) in 1651, and conducted the negotiations with Monck whereby the burgh escaped a heavy fine after its surrender on 7 Sept. In March 1652 he was appointed by the court of session keeper of the great seal and director of the chancellary. He accepted the latter office in June, and it was confirmed to him by Cromwell, with a salary of 200l., by letters of gift at Whitehall, 2 March 1657, and at Edinburgh, 20 Nov. 1657. In June 1653 he was summoned from Scotland, with four others, to sit in the Little parliament, which came to an end on 12 Jan. 1654. Jaffray was one of some thirty members who remained sitting till a file of musketeers expelled them, yet Cromwell gave him an order for 1,500l. on the commissioners at Leith, to reimburse him for his share in the outlay connected with the bringing over of Charles II from Breda in 1650. Returning to Scotland, Jaffray