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284–6). Thus James allowed himself to be persuaded to leave Paris in October 1650 for Holland, against his mother's desire. The Princess of Orange declining to receive him, he spent some time at Brussels and in the queen of Bohemia's house at Rhenen, in great want of money, while his followers talked of a futile project for a match with a natural daughter of the Duke of Lorraine. In January 1651 he was received at the Hague, and remained there and at Breda till peremptorily summoned back to Paris by Charles. At Paris the queen received him about the end of June, ‘without reproaches’ (Clarendon, Rebellion, vi. 471–84; cf. Life, pp. 48–51).

After Worcester the royal cause seemed hopeless, and the ‘sweet Duke of York’ (Evelyn, Correspondence, iv. 344) was eager to provide for himself. Berkeley vainly suggested a match with the only daughter and heiress of the Duke of Longueville (Life, i. 54; cf. Clarendon, Rebellion, pp. 588–92). James now resolved to take service in the French army as a volunteer. Accompanied only by Berkeley, Colonel Worden, and a few servants, the duke joined Turenne's army at Chartres, 24 April 1652. James has himself lucidly described the campaign against the Fronde which ensued (Life, i. 64–157). He was for a time in personal attendance upon Turenne; and on the capture of Bar-le-Duc (December), Mazarin allowed him to incorporate in the ‘regiment of York’ under his command an Irish regiment taken from the Duke of Lorraine. At the close of the campaign James returned to Paris (February 1653). In June 1653 he eagerly entered on his second campaign under Turenne, against Spain and Lorraine as the allies of Condé. At the siege of Mousson he was nearly killed; but he soon returned with the court from Châlons-sur-Marne to Paris (December), ‘full of reputation and honour’ (Hyde to Browne in Evelyn, Correspondence, iv. 298; cf. Life, i. 159–91). In 1654 and 1655 James joined Turenne's army as lieutenant-general, and was left in command of the army at the time of the conclusion of the treaty with Cromwell, which provided for the removal of the English royal family from France. Mazarin was anxious to obviate the loss of the Irish troops in the French service, and accordingly arrived at an understanding with the Protector which enabled James to become captain-general under the Duke of Modena over the forces of the French and their allies in Piedmont (ib. pp. 245–266; cf. Clarendon, Rebellion, vii. 229–30). Charles, however, refused his brother's request to remain in the French service. Their mutual jealousy had been fomented by rival factions among the duke's household, headed by Berkeley and Sir Henry Bennett. James obeyed his brother's summons, but against his express desire brought Berkeley with him to Bruges. A serious misunderstanding was removed with the aid of the Princess of Orange in January 1657; and, in defiance of the queen-mother's faction, James took service under the Spanish crown (Life, i. 275–97).

When in the same year he joined the Spanish forces in Flanders, he claims to have stood at the head of a contingent of two thousand of his brother's subjects ‘drawn out of France.’ A project to surprise Calais failed, and the siege of Ardres, in which James took part with his younger brother, was raised. James's exposure of himself at the siege met with Don John's disapproval. James's dissatisfaction with the stolid inactivity of the Spaniards increased during the successful siege of Mardyke by the French and English. Before the Spanish army went into winter quarters, January 1658, he had an interview with the English commander, Reynolds, which aroused grave suspicions in Cromwell (ib. i. 297–329). After the fall of Dunkirk, in June, James was put in command of Nieuport. Here he received the news of Oliver's death, and speedily quitted the army for Brussels and Breda (ib. i. 334–68; Clarendon, Rebellion vii. 284; Pepys, ii. 481–2).

On the news of the rising of Sir George Booth in Cheshire (August 1659), James hastened to Boulogne, where he remained, in a very hazardous incognito, in correspondence with his elder brother at Calais. At Amiens he entered into a negotiation with Turenne, who was eager to command an expedition to England for the restoration of Charles; but on the news of Booth's defeat James returned to Brussels (Life, i. 378–9), and probably soon afterwards refused an offer made to him by the Spanish government of the post of high admiral, with the command against Portugal (ib. i. 381). Clarendon adds that the acceptance of this offer would have involved James's becoming a catholic (Rebellion, vii. 363–4). At Breda, 24 Nov. 1659, he contracted, in sufficient time to legitimatise the eldest child afterwards born to them (Pepys, i. 362), a secret promise of marriage with Anne, daughter of Sir Edward Hyde [see Hyde, Anne].

A few days before he and Charles sailed for England, James received a gift of seventy-five thousand guilders from the States of Holland (Sir Stephen Fox, pp. 83–4, cf. ib. pp. 53, 62), as well as another of 10,000l. brought by the committee of the lords and commons. He was named lord high admiral