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Jardine (1766–1797), unitarian minister at Bath from 1790, by his wife, a daughter of George Webster of Hampstead. The father died on 10 March 1797, and John Prior Estlin [q. v.] of Bristol edited, with a memoir, two volumes of his sermons. The son graduated M.A. at Glasgow University in 1813, was called to the bar as a member of the Middle Temple (7 Feb. 1823), chose the western circuit, and became recorder of Bath. In 1839 he was appointed police magistrate at Bow Street, London. He died at the Heath, Weybridge, Surrey, on 13 Sept. 1860; his wife, Sarah, died three weeks later (Gent. Mag. 1860, ii. 446, 565).

In 1828 Jardine published an admirably compiled ‘General Index’ to Howell's ‘Collection of State Trials.’ In 1840 and 1841 he communicated to the Society of Antiquaries two papers of ‘Remarks upon the Letters of Thomas Winter and the Lord Mounteagle, lately discovered by J. Bruce. … Also upon the Evidence of Lord Mounteagle's implication in the Gunpowder Treason’ (printed in ‘Archæologia,’ xxix. 80–110, and also separately). These formed the materials for an elaborate volume entitled ‘A Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot,’ 8vo, London, 1857. Jardine also edited from a manuscript in the Bodleian Library ‘A Treatise of Equivocation,’ 8vo, 1851, and translated F. C. F. von Mueffling's ‘Narrative of my Missions in 1829 and 1830,’ 8vo, 1855.

For the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge he selected and abridged from Howell's ‘State Trials of England’ two volumes of ‘Criminal Trials,’ 12mo, 1832–3 (in Library of Entertaining Knowledge). To the ‘Lives of Eminent Persons,’ in the Library of Useful Knowledge, published by the same society, he contributed a ‘Life’ of Lord Somers. He wrote also: 1. ‘A Reading on the use of Torture in the Criminal Law of England previously to the Commonwealth,’ 8vo, London, 1837, which was described by Macaulay as ‘very learned and ingenious.’ 2. ‘Remarks on the Law and Expediency of requiring the presence of Accused Persons at Coroners' Inquisitions,’ 8vo, London, 1846.

[Annual Register, 1860, p. 453; Law Mag. November 1860, pp. 198, 199; information from Jerom Murch, esq., and Albert Nicholson, esq.; Estlin's Memoir of David B. Jardine.]

G. G.

JARDINE, GEORGE (1742–1827), professor of logic at Glasgow, was born in 1742 at Wandel in Lanarkshire, where his paternal ancestors had dwelt for nearly two centuries. His mother was a daughter of Weir of Birkwood, in the parish of Lesmahagow. Jardine was transferred in October 1760 from the parish school to Glasgow College, and after passing with distinction through the arts and divinity courses, was licensed to preach by the presbytery of Linlithgow. In 1770 he went to Paris as tutor to the sons of Baron Mure of Caldwell, who obtained for him from David Hume introductions to Helvetius and D'Alembert. Soon after his return from France in July 1773, he failed to secure election to the chair of humanity at Glasgow by a single vote, but in June 1774 was appointed professor of Greek and assistant professor in logic. In 1787 he became sole professor of logic. Jardine gave a more practical and less metaphysical turn to the teaching of his chair, established a system of daily examination, and bestowed infinite pains upon his classes, which rose from an average of fifty to one of nearly two hundred. He expounded his principles of teaching in his 'Outlines of Philosophical Education,' published at Glasgow, 1818; 2nd edit. 1825. His business powers restored the finances of the college to order. He was one of the founders in 1792, and afterwards for more than twenty years secretary, of the Royal Infirmary at Glasgow. For upwards of thirty years he was the representative of the presbytery of Hamilton in the general assembly. He retired from the chair of logic in 1824, and died on 27 Jan. 1827.

Jardine married in 1776 Miss Lindsay of Glasgow, whom he survived about twelve years. They had one son, John Jardine, advocate, who held the office of sheriff of Ross and Cromarty, and died in 1850.

Chambers's Biog. Dict. of Eminent Scotsmen, ed. Thomson (1868–70); Blackwood's Mag. March 1827.]

J. T-t.

JARDINE, JAMES (1776–1858), engineer, was born at Applegarth, Dumfriesshire, on 30 Nov. 1776. Having shown great aptitude for mathematics at the Dumfries academy he made his way in 1795 to Edinburgh, with a letter of introduction to John Playfair, professor of mathematics at Edinburgh University from 1785 to 1805. He was warmly befriended both by Playfair and by Dugald Stewart, and obtained many mathematical pupils, including Lord John Russell and Henry John Temple (afterwards Lord Palmerston). About 1806 he began, by Playfair's advice, to practise the profession of a civil engineer, and soon found abundant employment. He introduced the Crawley water into Edinburgh, constructed the Union Canal, and, having been employed in 1809 to take a series of levels in the Firth of Tay, he was the first to determine, by observations of the tides over a great extent of