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coast, the mean level of the sea. He did valuable work on the commission appointed in 1825 to determine the proportions borne by the old Scottish weights and measures to the imperial standard, and was subsequently engineer of the Dalkeith railway. ‘All Jardine's works,’ says Professor Rankine, ‘are models of skilful design and solid construction.’ Jardine died at Edinburgh on 20 June 1858. He was a friend of Stephenson and Telford.

[Notice by Professor W. M. J. Rankine in Imperial Dict. of Univ. Biog. vol. xii.; Glasgow Courier, 24 June 1858; information kindly supplied by Professor Ball of Glasgow.]

T. S.

JARDINE, JOHN (1716–1766), Scottish divine, son of Robert Jardine of Lochmaben, Dumfriesshire, was born 3 Jan. 1716. He was licensed by the presbytery of Lochmaben 7 Sept. 1736, was appointed to Liberton by George II, and was ordained 30 July 1741. On 26 July 1750 he received a call to Lady Yester's Church at Edinburgh, and on 24 April 1754 was transferred to the collegiate or second charge of the Tron Church there. He was created D.D. by the university of St. Andrews 20 Nov. 1758, and became one of his majesty's chaplains in ordinary in September 1759, and one of the deans of the Chapel Royal in August 1761. He was made dean of the order of the Thistle in January 1763. On 30 May 1766 Jardine died suddenly while attending a meeting of the general assembly. He married Jean (d. 1767), eldest daughter of George Drummond [q. v.], lord provost of Edinburgh. By her he left a son, Henry (afterwards Sir Henry) (1766–1851), sometime king's remembrancer, and a daughter, Janet, who married George Drummond Home of Blair Drummond. Jardine was a good preacher, and a man of great social qualities. He moved in the Edinburgh literary set of the time, was a member of the ‘Select Society’ of 1759, and a friend of Home, Hume, and Dr. Alexander Carlyle, but is only known to have written a few articles in the first ‘Edinburgh Review,’ which was founded, largely by his influence, in 1755.

[Scott's Fasti, i. 60, 62, 116; Annals of the General Assembly; Cunningham's Church Hist. of Scotland; Mackenzie's Life of Home, p. 14, &c.; Anderson's Scottish Nation, ii. 568; Carlyle's Autobiography, p. 238, &c.]

W. A. J. A.

JARDINE, Sir WILLIAM, seventh baronet (1800–1874), naturalist, eldest son of Sir Alexander Jardine, sixth baronet, of Applegarth, Dumfriesshire, was born in Edinburgh 23 Feb. 1800. After some education at home and at a school in York, he at the age of seventeen entered the university of Edinburgh, taking both literary and medical classes. He studied natural history and geology under Professor Jameson, and anatomy under Barclay, Allan, and Lizars. He succeeded his father as seventh baronet in 1820. Jardine devoted himself especially to ornithology. His earliest publication (with Prideaux John Selby), ‘Illustrations of Ornithology,’ gave him a high rank among zoologists. In 1833 he commenced the publication of the ‘Naturalists' Library,’ a popular scientific account of very many groups of the vertebrate kingdom, with coloured illustrations. The series, which was very useful in its day, and may still be consulted with advantage, appeared at intervals of about three months until 1845, and fourteen volumes, dealing chiefly with birds and fishes, were by Jardine. In addition he wrote many memoirs of naturalists as prefaces to volumes by other writers. In 1836 he was president of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club. In 1837 he started at Edinburgh with Selby the ‘Magazine of Zoology and Botany,’ which became in 1838 the ‘Annals of Natural History,’ and in 1841 the ‘Annals and Magazine of Natural History.’ He was also for some years a joint editor of the ‘Edinburgh Philosophical Journal.’ In 1860 he was one of the royal commissioners on salmon fisheries of England and Wales, and he was an active member of the British Association from its foundation. In addition to his wide ornithological knowledge, Jardine knew many orders of vertebrates both as sportsman and naturalist; he was also a good geologist and botanist. He formed a valuable museum at Jardine Hall, and drew up a catalogue, the bird list containing six thousand species. He was an ardent fisherman and a good shot. He died at Sandown, Isle of Wight, on 21 Nov. 1874. In 1820 Jardine married Jane Home, daughter of Daniel Lizars of Edinburgh, by whom he had three sons and four daughters. After her death, in 1871, he married Hyacinthe, daughter of the Rev. W. S. Symonds. Lady Jardine married in 1876 Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker.

Jardine wrote:

  1. ‘Illustrations of Ornithology’ (with Prideaux John Selby), 4to, Edinburgh, 1830, 2 vols.
  2. ‘Life of Alexander Wilson, Ornithologist,’ prefixed to Wilson's ‘American Ornithology,’ 1832; another edition, 1840.
  3. ‘The Naturalists' Library,’ edited by Jardine, Edinburgh, 1833–1845, 40 vols. 8vo. He wrote the volumes dealing with monkeys (vol. ii.), felinæ (vol. iii.), pachyderms (vol. ix.), ruminants (vols. x. xi.), humming-birds (vols. xiv. xv.), sunbirds (vol. xvi.), gallinaceous birds (vols. xx. xxi.), the perch family (vol. xxix.).
  4. ‘Calen-