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bay merchant, who was also engaged in trade with China. As partner of his father-in-law he made four more voyages to China. On the return voyage from Canton in 1804 the ship in which he sailed formed one of the fleet of merchantmen under the command of Sir Nathaniel Dance [q. v.], which put to flight a squadron of French ships of war under Admiral Linois. During a subsequent voyage he was captured by the French and carried to the Cape of Good Hope. After losing all his property and suffering many hardships he obtained a passage in a Danish vessel bound for Calcutta, and returned to Bombay in 1807. From this time his mercantile transactions met with extraordinary success, and by 1822 he had gained a fortune of about two crores of rupees (2,000,000l.) At this period commences that long series of public benefactions which has made his name famous. In 1822 he released all the prisoners detained in Bombay gaol, under the authority of the small cause court, by satisfying the claims of their creditors. In 1824 and 1837 he subscribed large sums to relieve the sufferers from destructive fires at Surat, and to restore the buildings destroyed; and in 1828 he gave to his co-religionists, the Parsees of Bombay, Poona, and Gujarat, large endowments to provide for the proper performance of their religious ceremonies. The hospital in Bombay which is known by his name was founded by him in 1843, and in the same year he endowed schools in Bombay, Surat, Odepore, Nowsaree, Broach, and other places. In 1845 was completed the enormous causeway which connects Mahim with Bandora. This work had been contemplated by the government, but had been deferred because of the expense. It was undertaken by Jeejeebhoy at the suggestion of his wife, who was moved by the frequent casualties in the sea passage between the two places. The extensive waterworks at Poona, the dharmasala, or home of rest for poor travellers, at Bombay, and many other philanthropic and educational institutions are due to the liberality of Jeejeebhoy. As a reward for these services he was knighted on 2 May 1842, and was further created a baronet of the United Kingdom on 6 Aug. 1857. He distinguished himself by his loyalty during the mutiny, and by the large contributions which he afterwards made for the relief of the sufferers in India. He died on 14 April 1859, and was succeeded in the baronetcy by his eldest son, Cursetjee, who in 1860 assumed the name of his father, in accordance with a statute which which ordaine that every succeeding holder of the baronetcy should take the name of Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy.

On the elder Jeejeebhoy's elevation to knighthood the Parsee community of Bombay presented an address to him, and subscribed fifteen thousand rupees to establish a fund for the translation of useful works from all languages into Gujaratee. To this sum he himself added three lacs of rupees, and the interest of the whole amount, called the Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy Translation Fund, is now annually devoted to such translations.

[Bombay Gazetteer, 15 April 1859; Burke's Peerage; The First Parsee Baronet, by Cowerjee Sorabjee Nadir.]

E. J. R.


JEENS, CHARLES HENRY (1827–1879), engraver, son of Henry and Matilda Jeens, was born at Uley in Gloucestershire on 19 Oct. 1827. He was instructed in engraving by John Brain and William Greatbach, and some of his earliest independent employment was on postage-stamps for the English colonies. Jeens was one of the engravers engaged on the ‘Royal Gallery of Art,’ edited by S. C. Hall, 1854, and executed a number of plates for the ‘Art Journal.’ About 1860 he became associated with Messrs. Macmillan & Co., for whose ‘Golden Treasury’ series and other publications he produced many beautiful vignettes and portraits, among the latter a series of ‘Scientific Worthies,’ issued in the periodical ‘Nature.’ In 1863 he completed for the Art Union of London the plate commenced by Shenton from Dicksee's ‘A Labour of Love,’ and one of his latest works was ‘Joseph and Mary,’ after Armitage, published by the same society in 1877. Other noteworthy plates were Romney's ‘Lady Hamilton with the Spinning-wheel;’ Millais' ‘Reverie;’ the ‘Head of a Girl,’ after L. da Vinci, prefixed to Mr. W. H. Pater's ‘Studies in the History of the Renaissance;’ and ‘The Queen and Prince Consort fording the Poll Tarff,’ after C. Haag, engraved for the queen's ‘Journal of our Life in the Highlands,’ 1868. Jeens' small plates are finished with admirable care and delicacy, but his larger works lack breadth and colour. He died, after a long illness, on 22 Oct. 1879. A volume of proofs of his vignettes is in the print room of the British Museum.

[Art Journal, 1880; Athenæum, 1 Nov. 1879; Men of the Reign, 1887; information kindly furnished by the rector of Uley; Bryan's Dictionary, ed. Graves, 1886.]

F. M. O'D.

JEFFCOCK, PARKIN (1829–1866), mining engineer, son of John Jeffcock of Cowley, Derbyshire, by his wife Catherine (née Parkin), was born at Cowley Manor 27 Oct. 1829. Although at first intended