Open main menu

Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 29.djvu/316

This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.


mense secret influence at court, and, although he and Lord North always denied it, to have largely controlled Lord North's relations with the throne. This reputation secured him at once considerable authority and unrivalled odium. During the American war, when his office made him little more than the chief official of a department obliged to carry out his colleagues' orders without responsibility or concurrence, this credit for indefinable influence was at its highest (see Doran, Walpole's Last Journals, ii. 322, 516, 606). After a few years it passed away, and his undeniable talents and experience secured him a better-founded reputation in the House of Commons. The younger Pitt would tolerate no intervention between himself and the king; but Jenkinson was his sincere admirer and a useful assistant in matters requiring practical knowledge. He took a principal part in framing the commercial treaty between Great Britain and the United States of America, and largely assisted in the establishment of the South Sea fishery; but after 1783 he spoke little in parliament, except upon commercial questions. Accordingly, in 1786, when the council for trade and the plantations was reconstituted, he became its president; by the king's desire he was also appointed chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and was raised to the peerage as Baron Hawkesbury of Hawkesbury in Gloucestershire.

In July 1789, on the death of his cousin Sir Banks Jenkinson, sixth baronet, he succeeded to the title and estates and also secured for himself Sir Banks's patent place of collector of customs inwards. In May 1796 he was created Earl of Liverpool. In the same year he had a grant of an augmentation to his coat of arms, viz., the arms of Liverpool in chief, at the special request of the municipality of Liverpool. He now practically retired from public life, only serving later on two parliamentary committees on the currency. His last speech was on the question of the union, 30 April 1800, and from that year to 1805 he suffered from a debility in the knees which rendered him unable to stand and made him a confirmed invalid. He resigned the chancellorship of the duchy of Lancaster in 1802, died at his house in Hertford Street, Mayfair, London, on 17 Dec. 1808, and was buried at Hawkesbury, Gloucestershire. There is a portrait of Liverpool by Romney in the possession of Mr. C. C. Cotes, which has been engraved. Mr. C. G. S. Foljambe has a drawing by Edridge (1802).

Liverpool married, first, at St. Marylebone, February 1769, Amelia, daughter of William Watts, formerly governor of Fort William, Bengal, by whom he had one son, Robert Banks Jenkinson [q. v.], afterwards second earl; and secondly, 22 June 1782, Catherine, fifth daughter of Sir Cecil Bisshopp of Parham, Sussex, sixth bart., and widow of Sir Charles Cope, second bart., of Brewerne, Oxfordshire, and Orton Longueville, Huntingdonshire, by whom he had a son, Charles Cecil Cope Jenkinson [q. v.], afterwards third earl, and a daughter, Charlotte, who married James Walter, lord Forrester of Corstorphine, afterwards earl of Verulam.

Liverpool published in 1785 his well-known ‘Collection of Treaties between Great Britain and the Powers from 1648 to 1783,’ and in 1805 a work on ‘The Coins of the Realm,’ in the form of a letter to the king, which was reprinted by the Bank of England in 1880.

[Memoirs of the second Earl of Liverpool (anon.), 1827; Sir N. Wraxall's Posthumous Memoirs; C. D. Yonge's Life of Lord Liverpool; Lord Auckland's Journal; Fitzmaurice's Life of Lord Shelburne; Lord Colchester's Diary; Horace Walpole's Letters, vols. i. and ii.; Donne's Letters of George III to Lord North; Russell's Memorials of Fox, vol. ii.; Stanhope's Life of Pitt; Grenville Corresp.]

J. A. H.

JENKINSON, CHARLES CECIL COPE, third Earl of Liverpool (1784–1851), born 29 May 1784, was second son of Charles Jenkinson, first earl of Liverpool [q. v.], by his second wife. He went to sea before he was ten years old, and served three years in the navy, but having left the service, matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, on 23 April 1801. He did not take a degree, but entered the diplomatic service as attaché at Vienna, served as a volunteer in the Austrian army at Austerlitz, and on inheriting the estates of his cousin Ottley in Shropshire, decided to enter parliament. At the general election of 1807 he was returned for Sandwich through the influence of his half-brother, Robert Banks Jenkinson, second earl of Liverpool [q. v.], then lord warden of the Cinque ports. In 1812 he was elected for Bridgnorth, and sat for East Grinstead from 1818 to December 1828. On 10 Oct. 1807 he was appointed parliamentary under-secretary for the home department, and in 1809 under-secretary of state for war and the colonies. At the opening of the session of 1828 he moved the address. His opinions were those of a moderate tory, and before 1826 he favoured a relaxation of the corn laws. The queen, when Princess Victoria, with her mother, the Duchess of Kent, used frequently to stay with Jenkinson at Buxted Park, Sussex, or at his Shropshire seat. On 4 Dec. 1828, on the death of the second Earl of Liverpool, he succeeded as third earl. He was nominated lord steward of the household in Sir Robert Peel's administration on