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him more than enough to warrant his European reputation as a statistician of vast industry and rare gifts of combination, and as an economist of high original power. In the opinion of Professor Alfred Marshall, the great body of Jevons's economic work ‘will probably be found to have more constructive force than any save that of Ricardo that has been done during the last hundred years.’ As a logician, he sought with considerable success to advance, as well as defend, the position taken up by Boole, and to establish the applicability of his theory of reasoning to all branches of scientific inquiry.

Jevons was distinguished by a noble simplicity of disposition. In accordance with this, the keynote to his character, he was pious in the broadest sense of the word, tender-hearted, readily interested in whatever had a real human significance, and, notwithstanding a constitutional tendency to depression, very easily pleased and amused. Both intellectually and morally self-centred, he was entirely free from sordid ambition, and from the mere love of applause. No more honest man ever achieved fame while living laborious days, and striving from his boyhood upward (Letters and Journal, p. 95) to become ‘a powerful good in the world.’

[Letters and Journal of W. Stanley Jevons, edited by his wife, London, 1886, with portrait; W. S. Jevons, an Obituary Notice, by the Rev. Robert Harley, F.R.S. (Obituary Notices of the Royal Society, No. 226, September 1883); personal knowledge. With the bibliography of Jevons's writings, appended to the Letters and Journal, may be compared that contributed by Mr. W. E. A. Axon to the Monthly Notes of the Library Association, iv. 155 sqq., 1883.]

A. W. W.

JEWEL, JOHN (1522–1571), bishop of Salisbury, born on 24 May 1522, was the son of John Jewel of Buden, in the parish of Berimber, or Berrynarbor, Devonshire. His mother's name was Bellamy, and at the age of seven he was placed under the care of her brother, John Bellamy, rector of Hampton. He was afterwards educated under different teachers at Bampton, South Molton, and Barnstaple. In July 1535 he entered Merton College, Oxford, as the pupil of Thomas Borow, who soon accepted the living of Croydon, and committed Jewel to the charge of John Parkhurst [q. v.], who made him his postmaster. Jewel owed much to the teaching of Parkhurst, who trained him in biblical criticism by employing him in comparing the translations of the New Testament made by Tyndal and Coverdale. By Parkhurst's advice, with a view to advance his future prospects, Jewel left Merton for Corpus Christi College, where he was elected scholar on 19 Aug. 1539. He graduated B.A. on 20 Oct. 1540, was elected fellow of Corpus on 18 March 1542, and proceeded to the degree of M.A. on 28 Jan. 1545 (Boase, Reg. Univ. Oxon., Oxf. Hist. Soc., i. 199). From the beginning of his university career he was so assiduous in his studies that he neglected his health and became prematurely old. An attack of rheumatism, which came upon him at Witney, where he retired before the plague, affected him so severely that he became permanently lame in one leg.

After taking his degree Jewel soon gained a reputation as a teacher, and was appointed by his college prelector in humanity and rhetoric. His lectures were attended by many of the older members of the university, and his former tutor, Parkhurst, sometimes came from his living of Cleeve in Gloucestershire to listen to him. Parkhurst was a staunch friend, whose house was always open to Jewel in vacations, and who frequently supplied him with money. Jewel also benefited by the liberality of Richard Chambers, who administered a fund for the purpose of helping rising scholars on the protestant side, and allowed Jewel 6l. a year for the purchase of books. In 1547 Peter Martyr came as professor of divinity to Oxford, and greatly influenced Jewel, who always regarded him as a second father. Chambers endowed a popular lectureship in Oxford, which was held by Martyr, but once in his absence Jewel supplied his place. His address on that occasion (Works, ed. Parker Society, iv. 1302, &c.) and an ‘Oratio contra Rhetoricam,’ delivered in his college hall for the purpose of exhorting to sound learning (ib. p. 1283, &c.), are his earliest writings. The date when Jewel took holy orders is not known; but he was a licensed preacher in December 1551 (Strype, Eccl. Mem. ii. ii. 268), and about the same time became vicar of Sunningwell, near Oxford, that he might have some cure of souls. In 1552 he took the degree of B.D., and his sermon on that occasion has been preserved (Works, ii. 950, &c.)

On Mary's accession in 1553 the popish party in Oxford were in the ascendant, and Corpus College at once proceeded to purge itself of all who were suspected of protestantism. Jewel was deprived of his fellowship, and sorrowfully bade farewell to his class (ib. iv. 1299). He took refuge in Broadgate Hall, now Pembroke College. It would seem that just before the death of Edward VI he had been appointed public orator of the university, in which capacity he was called upon to write a congratulatory address to