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Cole [q. v.] in a short letter dated 18 March. This controversy, which was somewhat rambling, was closed by a long pamphlet of Jewel, which, together with his sermon and the other letters, was published in the same year. When this controversy was over Jewel at the end of May went to his diocese, where he found the tower of his cathedral shattered by lightning, the temporalities of his see in a deplorable condition, and his hopes of religious activity sadly disappointed owing to the lack of capable preachers. Jewel strove to supply the last of these deficiencies by his own exertions, and went about his diocese preaching. In November he was called, by the archbishop's command, to the less congenial work of holding a visitation of the dioceses of Salisbury and Bristol. In April 1561 he was in London, where he preached at St. Paul's Cross, but the greater part of the year was spent in his own diocese, and he was occupied chiefly in literary work. In 1562 the fruits of his labours appeared in his ‘Apologia pro Ecclesia Anglicana,’ which was intended to be an answer to the scruples raised in some men's minds by the proceedings of the Council of Trent. The ‘Apologia’ is the first methodical statement of the position of the church of England against the church of Rome, and forms the groundwork of all subsequent controversy. In it Jewel sketched the doctrines and practice of the English church, defended them against the charges of heresy and disorder, justified the deviations from Roman belief and usage, explained the grounds on which the papal supremacy was not de fide, pointed out the long-felt need of a reformation, and claimed that, as it was impossible to proceed with it by means of a general council, national churches were at liberty to act through provincial synods. The book was written in Latin, as it was intended for circulation on the continent, where Elizabeth's proceedings had been systematically misrepresented. Its weighty learning was at once recognised (see Peter Martyr in Jewel's Works, iii. 1), and it was immediately adopted on all sides as the literary exposition of England's ecclesiastical position. It was translated into English in the same year under Parker's direction; but the first translation was superseded by another made by Ann, lady Bacon [q. v.], which was published in 1564 with a preface by Parker, and an appendix, apparently by Parker also, which described the existing order of the English church.

The publication of the ‘Apologia’ made Jewel notorious as the official champion of anglicanism; but private and personal motives to some extent affected the long controversy in which he was next engaged. Thomas Harding (1516–1572) [q. v.], an Oxford contemporary of Jewel's, was a prebendary of Salisbury when Jewel made his first visitation; he refused to take the oath of supremacy, was deprived of his prebend, and fled to Louvain. There he employed himself in preparing an onslaught on Jewel, whom he attacked personally with considerable virulence in ‘An Answer to Doctor Jewel's Challenge,’ which appeared early in 1564. Jewel set to work to reply, and had finished his work in May 1565, when in a sermon at St. Paul's Cross he referred to Harding's book, and gave a sample of his own arguments against it (Strype, Annals, i. ii. 176). Harding answered this sermon by an angry letter (ib. Appendix xxx.), and the first controversy was thus complicated by a second. In the autumn of 1565 appeared Jewel's ‘Reply unto Mr. Harding's Answer.’ Scarcely had this been issued before Harding returned to the combat with a ‘Confutation of an Apology for the Church of England.’ Jewel, oblivious of the fact that he had provoked the controversy, sighed for peace, and wondered why he was specially singled out for attack (Works, iv. 1266). However, he showed no signs of weariness in his ‘Defence of the Apology,’ which was published, with a dedication to Queen Elizabeth, in 1567. Harding continued his criticism of both of Jewel's books, but received no detailed answer, save by additional matter inserted in a second edition of the ‘Defence’ issued in 1570, and again in 1571. The subjects covered by Jewel and Harding involved the whole of the Romish controversy; in one point, at all events, Jewel had the advantage over his antagonist—he wrote in good temper and avoided personalities. The importance of Jewel's argument lay in his willingness to admit the appeal to the first six centuries of Christian literature. His learning was solid, and though the method which he employed of answering his opponent in consecutive order, paragraph by paragraph, was tedious, and robbed his book as a whole of literary charm, it was perhaps well adapted to carry conviction at the time, and showed his readiness to enter fairly upon the whole question.

The great interest attaching to Jewel's writings is the insight which they give into the process by which the anglican system was established on a logical basis. Jewel began his episcopate with decided leanings to Calvinism, and hoped that the Elizabethan church would develope in a Calvinistic direction. But he soon saw that the first necessity was to make good its position against