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of France began to use him as a means of troubling Richard's dominions, and offered him his sister Adela in marriage, promising to give him with her all Richard's continental possessions. The queen-mother's return to England on 11 Feb. interrupted John's design of visiting France. The threat that if he set sail all his English lands and castles would be seized kept him at home. About the middle of March Longchamp, relying on John's promise, returned to England, and sent to the council then gathered in London to demand his restoration. The lords on learning from John that the chancellor's restoration depended on him, and that Longchamp had bribed him to take his side, offered him the larger bribe of two thousand marks, which converted him to their views. The chancellor was fined and forced to leave the country. Immediately after Christmas John received a message from Philip, telling him of the captivity of Richard, and renewing his offer to him. He crossed to Normandy, and demanded an oath of fealty from the seneschal and the barons. They refused, saying that they hoped that their lord would return. In February 1193 John went to Philip, did homage to him for Normandy and the rest of Richard's continental dominions, and it was said for England also, and swore to marry Adela, though his wife Avice was living, and to give up Gisors and the Norman Vexin in exchange for part of Flanders, Philip promising to help him to gain his brother's lands. On returning to England he gathered a force of foreign mercenaries, and took possession of Wallingford and Windsor, met the justices in London, and demanded that they should swear fealty to him, declaring that Richard was dead. They were incredulous and refused, and he went off in a rage to fortify his castles and make raids on the king's lands, expecting a force of French and Flemish to come over to help him. The justices retaliated, and called the people of the coast to arms, so that the foreigners were unable to land. John lost ground rapidly; the castles of Windsor, Wallingford, and the Peak were reduced, Archbishop Geoffrey and Bishop Hugh of Durham besieged Tickhill, and by May John was prepared to submit. A doubt as to the king's return caused the justices to be unwilling to push him too far, and they made a truce with him until 1 Nov. In July he heard that the emperor had agreed to liberate Richard on the fulfilment of certain conditions, Philip sending to bid him 'beware, for the devil was unloosed' (Hoveden, iii. 216).

John dared not abide his brother's return. He at once joined Philip in Normandy, and went with him into France. An offer of peace, sent by Richard to Philip, included terms of reconciliation with John, and when the king allowed him to have all the castles and lands which he had bestowed on him John returned to Normandy and swore fealty to Richard's representatives. The constables of the Norman castles, however, refused to deliver them to him, and he went off again in wrath to Philip, who gave him the castles of Driencourt and Arques. When the date of Richard's return drew near John joined Philip in sending an embassy to the emperor in January 1194, offering him a large sum to prolong the king's captivity until Michaelmas. The emperor showed the king John's letter when he met him at Mentz on 2 Feb. Meanwhile, despairing of the success of his offer, John sent a messenger to England to order that his castles should be put in a state of defence against the king. His messenger incautiously boasted at the table to Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, the new chief justiciar, about his master's influence with the French king and other matters. On hearing of this the mayor of London had him arrested. The council thereupon decreed that John should be deprived of all his English lands. The archbishop and bishops excommunicated him at Westminster; the bishop of Durham again laid siege to Tickhill; David, earl of Huntingdon, and the Earl of Chester besieged Nottingham; the justiciar took Marlborough, and received the surrender of the castle of Lancaster and of St. Michael's Mount in Cornwall, which one of John's party held for him after having turned out the monks. On Richard's landing on 13 March Tickhill surrendered. The king at once marched to Nottingham, and its surrender on the 28th completed the reduction of John's English possessions. On 31 March Richard demanded judgment against John, and it was decreed that if he did not answer the summons of the court within forty days his English fiefs should be forfeited, and he should be incapable of succeeding to the throne. In May he met the king in Normandy, and through the mediation of the queen-mother the brothers were reconciled, though Richard did not for a while give him back any of his lands, but kept him in a position of dependence. John saw that it had become his interest to support his brother against Philip; he prepared to defend Rouen against the French, and surprised the garrison of Evreux, cut off the heads of three hundred men, and stuck them on stakes round the walls, but did not take the castle, and displeased the king by his cruelty. In company with the Earls of Huntingdon and Arundel he made