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John
John
408

the king of Scots, who the next day did homage to him. On the 23rd the funeral procession of Bishop Hugh arrived; both the kings went out from the city to meet it, and John acted as one of the bearers (ib. pp. 371, 372). Moved by the bishop's death he promised the Cistercians to build them an abbey; he first granted the manor of Faringdon in Berkshire to the mother-house at Citeaux, and afterwards built his abbey at Beaulieu in Hampshire, granting Faringdon to the convent as a cell (Tanner, Notitia, pp. 18, 164; Monasticon, v. 680–2). When he revisited Lincoln in January 1201 he tried unsuccessfully to persuade the chapter to forego their right of election. A quarrel was in progress between him and Archbishop Geoffrey of York [q. v.], and on going to Beverley on the 10th he stayed with one of Geoffrey's excommunicated opponents. The archbishop refused to allow the canons to welcome him, and he commanded that Geoffrey's servants should be imprisoned. After visiting Scarborough with his queen he went through the northern parts of his kingdom, everywhere fining the people on the plea that they had injured his forests. At York on 1–4 March he was reconciled to the archbishop, and on the 25th, Easter-day, he and his queen wore their crowns at Canterbury, his court being largely attended by magnates.

Meanwhile Hugh le Brun, in revenge for the loss of his wife, was stirring up the Poitevin lords against him. In return John ordered the seneschal of Normandy to take Driencourt, then belonging to Ralph Count of Eu, Hugh's brother. War began on the Norman border, and before long Philip went to the help of John's enemies. John ordered his forces to assemble at Portsmouth on 13 May 1201. On this the earls met at Leicester, and declared that they would not cross the sea unless he granted them their rights. He demanded their castles, and showed that he meant to enforce the demand. They yielded, and on their assembling, John, in lieu of their service, took money, with which he could pay an army of mercenaries. In company with his queen he sailed from Portsmouth with a well trained force. He had an amicable conference with Philip on the isle of Andelys, and on 1 July visited Paris, where Philip entertained him honourably. At Chinon, which he made his headquarters, he summoned the Poitevin lords to appear, sending them an appeal of treason against himself and the late king, and calling on them to do battle with the champions he should select from his followers. They refused, saying that they would be judged by their peers. He then commissioned Robert of Turnham to act against them, declared Moncontour the castle of Geoffrey of Lusignan, Hugh's brother forfeited, and made alliance with his father-in-law, the Count of Angoulême. The Poitevins applied to Philip, and at their request Philip summoned him to appear before his court of French lords and receive the judgment of his peers. On 25 March 1202 John met Philip at Le Goulet, and was requested to give up his continental possessions to Arthur. He refused, but probably about this time agreed to be judged by his peers, and offered Boutavant and Tillières as pledges. When the appointed day came he did not appear, and the French nobles sentenced him to forfeit all his fiefs for disobedience to his suzerain. Philip at once took Boutavant, Tillières, and a line of border fortresses as far north as Eu, John apparently having made no special effort to prepare for the war by strengthening the border. Then Philip marched south, and laid siege to Radepont on the Andella on 8 July. Being forced by John to raise the siege about the 16th, he occupied Aumale and took Gournay, where he gave Arthur his daughter in marriage, invested him with all John's fiefs except Normandy, which he no doubt reserved for himself, and furnished him with men and money (for order of events see Angevin Kings, ii. 404, n. 3). John seems to have done little until, on 30 July, he heard that his mother was besieged by Arthur and the Poitevin lords in Mirebeau. He hastened thither, and arriving on 1 Aug. found the place almost in the hands of the enemy. He surprised and totally routed the besiegers, taking prisoners Arthur, Hugh le Brun and his brother Geoffrey of Lusignan, two hundred French knights, and Arthur's sister, Eleanor of Brittany. He put his prisoners in irons, sent them off in wagons to be kept, some in Norman and some in English prisons. He is said to have starved twenty-two to death in Corfe Castle (Margam Annals, p. 26; Hardy, Pref. to Patent Rolls, p. 34). Arthur he imprisoned at Falaise. Eleanor he imprisoned at Bristol, where she was kept in captivity all the rest of her life. He foolishly allowed himself to he persuaded to release Hugh and his brother. On hearing of Arthur's misfortune Philip, after burning Tours, retired to Paris. John did further damage to Tours, in anger at its having fallen into Philip's hands, and sent a force into Brittany which took Dol, and laid waste Fougères and the country round. He had an interview with Arthur at Falaise, and made him many offers if he would consent to abandon the